Bihar is lying approximately between 21o58'10'' and 27o31'15''N latitudes and 82o 19'50'' and 88o17'40''E longitudes in the lower and middle Gangetic region extending 483 Km from west to east. Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country and is an entirely land-locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away. Bihar lies mid-way between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy and culture. Bihar is bounded on the north by Nepal, on the south by Jharkhand, on the east by West Bengal and on the west by Uttar Pradesh.
As bihar extends from 22-degree north to 27-degree latitude. Hence its location is tropical to sub tropical, the Himalayan Mountains in the north have a significant bearing on the distribution of monsoon rainfall in Bihar and Bihar joins the Ganga delta and Assam ; so the climate of Bihar is a part of the climatic pattern of the Indian subcontinent. Bihar gets the worst of the cold and the worst of the heat and plenty of floods. Northern portion of Bihar is almost entirely a level tract, while the south is wooded and hilly.
Bihar has a number of rivers, the most important of which is the Ganga. The river Ganga flows right across it from west to east. North Bihar is extremely fertile, the land being watered by the rivers Sarayu, Gandak and Ganga. The other rivers are the Sone, Poonpoon, Falgu, Karmanasa, Durgawati, Kosi, Ghaghara etc.
The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and Dun ranges in Champaran constitute another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consists of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the favoured areas. The hot and dry summer gives the deduous forests. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta (Sal), Shisham, Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. This type of forests also occurs in Saharasa and Purnia districts.
The topography of Bihar can be easily described as a fertile alluvial plain occupying the Gangetic Valley. The plain extends from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to a few miles south of the river Ganges as it flows through the State from the west to the east. Rich farmland and lush orchards extend throughout the state. Following are the major crops: paddy, wheat, lentils, sugarcane, jute (hemp, related to the marijuana plant, but a source of tough fibers and "gunny bags"). Also, cane grows wild in the marshes of West Champaran. The principal fruits are: mangoes, banana, jack fruit and litchis. This is one the very few areas outside China which produces litchi.
Bihar has a number of major public sector projects like the Oil refinery of Indian Oil Corporation and Fertilizer manufacturing plant of Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Ltd (HPCL) at Barauni, Pyrites, Phosphates and Chemicals Ltd (PPCL) at Amjhor; Cotton spinning mills at Siwan, Pandaul, Bhagalpur, Mokamah and Gaya; 13 sugar mills in private sector and 15 in public section located in South and North Bihar. In addition distilleries at Gopalganj, West Champaran, Bhagalpur and Riga (Sitamarhi District); finish leather industry in West Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Barauni; Jute mills at Katihar and Samastipur; Medicine manufacturing unit at Hajipur; Food processing units and Vanaspati manufacturing units at Aurangabad and Patna; Kalyanpur Cement Ltd at Banjari are some of the notable industries in Bihar. Bihar has tremendous resources and their utilisation in the interest of its growing population has to be the supreme responsibility of both the state administration and the national planners.
The principal agricultural crops are rice, paddy, wheat, jute, maize and oil seeds. Cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, radish, carrot, beat etc. are some of the vegetables grown in the state. Sugarcane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown. The entire agricultural operations is divided into two crop seasons Kharif and Rabi. The Kharif season starts from the third week of May and lasts till the end of October followed by the Rabi season
Agriculture has been the sole source of wealth in Bihar. This fact is perhaps one of the chief causes of the state's poverty, as no land can be rich which depends mainly on agriculture. The problem of uneconomic holdings has been compounded by fragmentation i.e. by splitting and separation of the holdings of most cultivators into many tiny plots, adding to the labour of the cultivators and decreasing the efficiency of their operations. Improved methods and machinery are being gradually introduced, but much passive resistance and many conservative prejudices have still to be overcome before the rural classes can be induced to take them. Within recent years some progress is noticeable.
Bihar has two airports at Patna connected to Delhi, Mumbai, Lucknow, Calcutta, and Katmandu. Indian Airlines and Sahara Airways have direct flights to Patna from Delhi.
Bihar has well developed railway network with almost all the major and minor places connected by good trains. Major railway stations like Patna, Muzaffarpur, and Gaya are connected to all the major cities of India by regular trains.
There is good network of roads connecting all the major parts of the state with Patna, the state capital. National highways like 2, 31, 28, 23, 30, and 33 connect the state from places all over India. Distance of some of the major places in the state from Patna are Sonepur (25 km), Vaishali (55 km), Nalanda (90 km), Gaya (97 km), Bodhgaya (117 km) and Rajgir (102 km).
|Bihar District at a glance :|
|Latitude||21°-58'-10" ~ 27°-31'-15" N|
|Longitude||82°-19'-50" ~ 88°-17'-40" E|
|Rural Area||92,257.51 sq. kms|
|Urban Area||1,095.49 sq. kms|
|Total Area||94,163.00 sq. kms|
|Height above Sea-Level||173 Feet|
|Normal Rainfall||1,205 mm|
|Avg. Number of Rainy Days||52.5 Days in a Year|
|Number of Revenue Villages||45,103|
|Number of Urban Agglomerations||9|
|Number of Towns||130|
|- Statutory Towns||125|
|- Non-Statutory Towns||5|
|- Civil Police Stations||813|
|- Railway Police Stations||40|
|- Civil Police District||39|
|- Railway Police District||4|
|Key Statistics - as per 2001 Census (Provisional)|
|- Female||3,97,24,832 |
Population (0~6 Years Group)
|- In Absolute Numbers||1,62,34,539|
|- Percentage of Total Population||19.59%|
|- In Absolute Numbers||3,16,75,607|
|- Percentage of Total Population||47.53%|
|Decadal Population Growth (1991-2001)||130|
|- As Percentage||28.43%|
|Highest Decadal Growth at||Sheohar District (36.16%)|
|Lowest Decadal Growth at||Nalanda District (18.64%)|
|- Civil Police Stations||813|
|- Railway Police Stations||40|
|Density of Population||880 per sq kms|
|- Highest Density||Patna, 1471 per sq kms|
|- Lowest Density||Kaimur, 382 per sq kms|
|Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)||921|
|- Highest Ratio||(Siwan) 1,033|
|- Lowest Ratio||(Patna) 873|
|Highest Literacy Rate||Patna, 63.82%|
|Lowest Literacy Rate||Kishanganj, 31.02%|
|Average Population of a District||22,39,967|
|Crude Mica||53 Tonnes|