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Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 15th of november, 2000. Jharhkand is bordered by the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. The other major cities, all highly industrialised cities of eastern India, are Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Dhanbad. Jharkhand is also popularly known as 'Vananchal' means a land mass covered with forests. Jharkhand is known for its mineral wealth and forestry products together with excellent human resources. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Indian elephants. Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.


Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area

Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumeritilaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill

Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad

Black soil, found in Rajmahal area

Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum


Jharkhand has a population of 26.90 million, consisting of 13.86 million males and 13.04 million females. The sex ratio is 941 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribals, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. There are 274 persons for each square kilometer of land. However, the population density varies considerably from as low as 148 per square kilometer in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometer in Dhanbad district. Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. Some of the districts have a predominant tribal population. Jharkhand has 32 primitive tribal groups.These are Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar. The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was previously part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India. Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the three religions that came in through the colonisers. The Tribal comunities of Jharkhand have their own spiritual beliefs commonly called Sarna. During the process colonisation the tribal religious beliefs were considered pagan and this was a tool for further subordination. Today the tribal people are realizing this and now Sarna is a growing phenomena. The literacy rate in Jharkhand is only 54.13% (2001) and female literacy rate is still lower at 39.38%.


Jharkhand is a rich state of poor people. It has concentration of some of country's highly industrialized cities like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Dhanbad. Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, lime stone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), yemenite (2nd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi. Despite the fact that it has First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur, largest fertilizer factory of its time in India (since shut down) at Sindri, biggest explosives factory at Gomia, first methane gas well, still, it has several towns and innumerable villages with sub-standard civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is only 22.25% and the per capita annual income is US$ 90 only.


The state is headed by a Governor, who is appointed by the President of India. However, the real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government. The administrative head of the State is called Chief Secretary, under whose jurisdiction a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service / State Civil Services function. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice and Jharkhand has a separate High Court, located in Ranchi. Presently, the state has 22 dsitricts.


Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Bhojpuri , Hindi, Urdu, Bengali. Jharkand is also home to the Munda languages Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Paharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon, and Sauria Paharia.


Hindi newspapers like the Ranchi Express and the Prabhat Khabar are main newspapaers, published from the state capital, Ranchi and are available in almost all parts of the state. All important Indian newspapers, in Hindi, English and Bengali are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and with a day's delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi, English and Bengali are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. All India Radio is the only radio station in Jharkhand and covers the entire state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities of Jaharkhand is served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes. Landline telephone connectivity is provided by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL),Tata Teleservices(TATA INDICOM) and Reliance Infocomm and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by BSNL ,Reliance Telekom and Airtel( GSM Service) and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm(CDMA Service) Internet connectivity is available in most of the district headquarters, but broadband connectivity is not widely available.

Districts of Jharkhand

Gumla district
West Singhbhum
Saraikela Kharsawan
East Singhbhum


District Wise Population Details
Name of District Area Sq. km Total ST SC
Ranchi 7573.68 2214088 964422 123239
Lohardagga 1490.80 288886 162964 10919
Gumla 5320.94 707555 493563 25608
Simdega 3756.19 446421 323425 35691
Palamu 4015.16 1182770 106254 324223
Latehar 3660.47 467071 211580 99507
Garhwa 4044.22 801350 125432 190830
West Singhbhum 5290.21 1080780 717708 49385
Saraikela Kharsawan 2724.55 707175 260361 40111
East Singhbhum 3533.35 1613088 466572 77194
Dumka 3716.36 950853 443285 52763
Jamtara 1801.98 544856 178199 51331
Sahebganj 1705.98 736835 228990 49304
Pakur 1805.59 564253 278331 21484
Godda 2110.45 861182 216047 72893
Hazaribagh 5965.35 1836068 223571 280700
Chatra 3706.22 612713 23487 198668
Koderma 1311.63 394763 3528 57789
Giridih 4887.05 1496189 148342 202084
Dhanbad 2074.68 1949526 171741 312467
Bokaro 2860.82 1454416 177123 197365
Deoghar 2478.61 933113 119085 115697

Jharkhand at a glance
Total Area 79714 sq km
Density of Population 274 persons / Sq. KM
Per capita Income Rs. 4161
No. of Villages 32620
No. of Villages Electrified 14667 (45 % of total)
No. of Villages connected by roads 8484
National Highways 1006 km
State Highways 4662 km
Health centers 506
Schools 21386
Universities 5 (Incl. One deemed University)
Lok Sabha members from Jharkhand 14
Strength of Jharkhand Assembly 82
(81 elected, 1 nominated)
No. of divisions 4
No. of districts 22
No. of sub-divisions 33
No. of Blocks 212
Main Languages Santhali, Ho, Mundari, Kuduk, Nagpuri, Sadri, Karmali, Hindi, Urdu, Bangla and Oriya
Population 26909428
Sex Ratio 941
Literacy 54.13%
(Women 39.38, Men, 67.94)
Most Sacred Tree Sal
State Animal Elephant
State Bird Cuckoo
Longest National Highway in Jharkhand NH-33 (Bahragora to Barhi)
National Highway in Jharkhand 1006 km
State Highway 4662 km
Main Tribals Santhal, Oraon. Ho, Munda, Kharia, Kharwar etc.
Main Rivers North Koel, South Koel, Damodar, Swarnrekha, Barakar, Sankh, More etc
Main Festivals Karma, Sarhul, Tusu, Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Chhath, Sohrai, Rath Yatra etc.
Main Fairs Shrawani Mela, Deoghar, Murmu Mela, Rath Yatra, Jagannathpur.
Main Dances Jhumar, Paika, Natua, Agni, Chau, Santhal, Ghatwari, Matha, Sohrai.
Main Power Plants Damodar Valley Corporation, Swarnrekha Hydel Plant, Patratu Thermal, Bokaro Thermal and Chandrapura Thermal
Main Minerals Iron Ore, Aluminium, Coal, Magnese, Uranium, Tin, Mica, Bauxite

Forest Area in Forest Divisions (in Hectares)
Forest Division District Reserved Protected Unclassified Total
Deoghar Deoghar   23546   31400
  Santhal Paragna   7854    
Dumka   12853 148136   150989
Hazaribagh West Hazaribagh 672 176524 340 177536
Hazaribagh East Hazaribagh 1743 63625   125699
  Giridih 60331      
Chatra South Hazaribagh 752 101828   102580
Chatra North Hazaribagh   93372   93372
Kodarma Hazaribagh 15630 73408   89038
Giridih Giridih 8776 143020   151796
Dhanbad Dhanbad 10825 15555   26380
Saranda Singhbhum 81808 3988 86 85882
Kolhan Singhbhum 58716 11258 68 70042
Porahat Singhbhum 50628 15816 98 66542
South Chaibasa Singhbhum 31 50875   50906
North Chaibasa Singhbhum 6486 61540   68026
Ranchi East Ranchi 11742 80182   91924
Dhalbhum Singhbhum 53050 51863   104913
Ranchi West Ranchi 15677 57784   100034
Lohardagga Lohardagga 10613 15960    
Latehar Ranchi 3417 10652   132384
Latehar Palamu 17231 101084    
Gumla Gumla 12102 118717 16 130835
Daltonganj North Palamu 3987 126661   130648
Garhwa South Palamu 549 123586   124135
Garhwa North Palamu   78705   78705
Daltonganj South Palamu 58081 46044 45 104170
Giridih Afforestation Giridih 485 16318   16803


Name of the University Head Quarter District
Ranchi University Ranchi Ranchi
Siddhhu Kanhu University Dumka Dumka
Binova Bhave University Hazaribagh Hazaribagh
Birsa Agricultural University Ranchi Ranchi
B.I.T. Mesra Deemed University Ranchi Ranchi


Law Colleges

Name of the University Place District
Rajendra Law College Hazaribagh Hazaribagh
Chotanagpur Law College Ranchi Ranchi

Agricultural / Forest University / College

Name of the University / college Place District
Birsa Agriculture University Kanke Ranchi
Faculty of Forestry Sciences Kanke Ranchi

Engineering Colleges

Name of the Institute Place District
Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri Dhanbad
Indian School of Mines Dhanbad Dhanbad
Birla Institute of Technology Mesra Ranchi
Faculty of Agriculture Engineering Kanke Ranchi
Regional Institute of Technology Jamshedpur East Singhbhum

Medical Colleges / Institutions

Name of the Institute Place District
Patliputra Medical Colleges Dhanbad Dhanbad
Rajendra Medical College Ranchi Ranchi
Hospital for Mental Deseases Kanke Ranchi
MGM Medical College Jamshedpur East Singhbhum
Ranchi Veterinary College Kanke Ranchi
Jharkhand Veterinary College Kanke Ranchi
Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry Kanke Ranchi

College of Nursing

Name of the University / college Place District
Rajendra Medical College & Hospita Ranchi Ranchi
Yogda Satsang Homeopathic College Ranchi Ranchi
Homeopathic College & Hospital Mihijam Dumka


Mineral No. of Mines Production Unit Rank in the Country
Coal 183 59919 Thousand Tonnes 3
Iron ore 28 8659 Thousand Tonnes 1
Boxite 6 1029 Thousand Tonnes 3
Lime Stone 33 1242 Thousand Tonnes -
Copper Ores 5 1189 Thousand Tonnes 1
Manganese - 18718 Tonnes -
Micca 84 1082 Tonnes 1
Kainite 3 4922 Tonnes 1
China Clay 25 23256 Tonnes -
Fire Clay - 49970 Tonnes -
Graphite - 7276 Tonnes 8
Silver 13648 K.G. - -
Gold 254 K.G. 6 -
Uranium - - - 1
Cromite - 2 - -
Asbestus - - - 1
Thorium - - - 3
Isemenite - - - 2

Ministries & Departments

Department of Science and Tech., Information Technology
Ministry of Building Construction And Transport
Ministry of Forest and Environment
Ministry of Health , Medical Education and Family Welfare
Ministry of Rural Development
Ministry of Science and Technology, Information Technology and Industry (Industry Department)
State Agriculture Management & Extension Training Intitute ,Agriculture Department
Department of Labour Employment & Training

Government Organisations

Income Tax Department, Dhanbad
Bharat Coking Coal Limited(BCCL)
Central Coalfields Limited,(CCL) Ranchi
Central Fuel Research Institute (CFRI)
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI)
Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd.
Indian School of Mines
Regional Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

Who's Who ?

Speaker of Assembly
Shri Inder Singh Namdhari

Chief Minister

Shri Arjun Munda
Industry, Cabinet coordination, public relations, personnel, civil aviation, law, health and all portfolios not given to any one.


Sh. Sudesh Mahto
Home, Prisons, Road, Building Construction and Sports

Sh. Raghubar Das
Finance and urban development

Sh. Pradeep Yadav

Sh. Ramesh Singh Munda

Sh. Enos Ekka
Rural Development, NREP

Sh. Harinarayan Rai
Forest and rural engineering

Sh. C.P. Chowdhary
Land revenue, registration, Science and Technology

Sh. Madhu Koda
Mines, Parliamentary affairs and cooperative

Sh. Kamlesh Singh
Water resources, food and civil supplies

Famous Personalities

Lance Naik Albert Ekka
Birsa Munda
Kanhu Murmu
Kartik Oraon
Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Shibu Soren
Sido Murmu
Yashwant Sinha