District Boundary East - Purulia and Saraikela
West - Gumla,Lohardaga and Palamu
North - Hazaribagh
South - West Singhbhum
Ranchi has a salubrious climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 37 to 20 °C during summer, and maximum 22 to 10 °C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1530 mm.
On account of its historical position as an important administrative and military base of the eastern India during the British Raj, Ranchi developed as an important centre of trade and commerce, including a traditional base for sericulture and manufacture of shellac. Villages around Ranchi has been described as the 'vegetable bowl' of Jharkhand and truckloads of green vegetables are transported from the city to different parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, as also to Calcutta. After India gained independence, Ranchi continued to grow and a number of industrial facilities were located in and around the city, and it emerged as an important industrial center. Along with other two industrial townships of Jamshedpur and Bokaro, it completes the industrial structure of Jharkhand. Major techno-industrial facilities of Ranchi include Heavy Engineering Corporation, Mecon, SAIL's R&D Facility, High Tension Insulator factory, CCL, CMPDI, IICM, USHA MARTIN, USHA BELTRON and Shipping Corporation of India.
The Subarnarekha river originates near Ratu. It flows in an easterly direction until it descends at Hundru fall , then it enters into the Singhbhum District.
The South Koel rises near Mandar and flows in a north waterly direction for some distance. It turns towards the south near Lohardaga and flows across the Singhbhum District.
It rises in the north western part of the district near the Rajadera plateau.
The entire district of Ranchi is covered by Red soil except for a small portion in the south east which contains red and black soil.
Flora and fauna
Forests cover a considerable portion of the district. "Dry peninsular sal" is the main type of forests found. The trees found along with Sal trees are Gamhar, Asan, Kend, Simul and Mahua.
Mostly bears are found in addition to Sambhar, Chital, Nilgai, Hares.
How to reach
By Train and Road
Ranchi is linked to North, East, West and South by rail and to every important part of the country by road. Rickshaws and Tempos are readily available on Rly. Station and bus stands ([Birsa, Khadgarha bus stand and Ratu Bus Stand) to take you to any part of the city almost 24 hours, but avoid late night movements. Rickshaw and reserved tempo fare from both the stands to Albert Ekka (Firayalal) chowk is negotiable which come to Rs. 10/- and 25/- to 35/- respectively. You can have hotels to suit your purse near Rly. Station and Bus Stands. From Ranchi town to different sites of sight seeing, you can have regular bus service or you can charter taxi (private cars) or hire tempo - fare is negotiable.
Ranchi is the only city of Jharkhand which is connected by a daily airbus flight to Mumbai via Delhi, the capital of India. The flight time to, nearest airport, Patna from Ranchi is 45 minutes. It is expected that some more flights will be added soon. Kolkata, overnight by train, is the nearest international airport.
Place of interest
About 65 km from Ranchi. A tourist place, has great picnic spots and famous for its temple. Click on the link to know more.
Heart of the city
Near Firayalal Chowk at the heart of the city.
Angrabadi is actually, a temple complex which accommodates the temples of Lords Ganpati, Ram-Sita and Hanuman and Shiva. The Shankracharya Swami Swarupanand Saraswati, having been captivated by serene, placid and celestial beauty of Angrabadi rechristened it as Amreshwar DhamJagannathpur Temple - Built in the architectural style of Puri temples
About 39 km. From Ranchi on Tata Road near Bundu stands on the desolate bush green the elegant Sun temple fashioned in the form of huge chariot with richly decorated 18 wheels and seven life like horses ready to take of. Built by Sanskrit Vihar headed by Shri Ram Maroo, the managing director of Ranchi Express, the sun temple deserves the title "a poem in stone". The surroundings of the temple, studded with a pond serving as a sacred place for Chhathavratis are actually a natures bounty to the peple of Chotanagpur. A beautiful dharmashala , meant for the pilgrims. The all weather motorable road upto the temple premises is likely to attract tourists who will be captivated to behold the newly built sun temple in the placid and serene surrounding leading to its celestial bueaties.
Ramakrishna Mission and Ashram, Morabadi, Ranchi
Ramakrishna Mission Ashram and T B Sanatorium, Tupudana, Ranchi
Rock Garden/Kanke Dam
The spot has been developed into an artificial garden, complete with water falls and sculptures, to attract tourists. The rock garden is awesome in its appearance, striking a balance between the creativity of modern and ancient man.
Birsa Zoological Park (14 km from Ranchi)
Night Safari (14 km from Ranchi)
Deer Park (16 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Khunti Road)
Sidhu Kaanu Park (Heart of the city)
Dr. Zakhir Hussain Park (Heart of the city)
Nakshatra Van (Heart of the city, near Raj Bhawan (Governor's House)
Excavated by Col. Onsely, a British Agent in 1842, Ranchi Lake is centrally situated. It is a few minutes walk from GPO and is adjacent to Ranchi Telephone Exchange. The lake taken for beautification is yet to be beautified conforming to the original concept envisaged by the Deputy Commissioner, Madan Mohan Jha. However, the lake has an added attraction of boating for the visitors.
Rukka Dam (16 km from Ranchi)
Aqua Home (Heart of the city)
About 40 km. away from Ranchi on Tata Road falls a village named Taimara near which flows the Kanchi river, Falling from a height of about 144 feet Kanchi river makes a pretty fall called Dassam falls known as Dassam Ghagh also encircled with charming scences. The tourists are warned not to take bath in the falls or at least be careful while bathing in the stream.
Jonha is about 40 km. away from Ranchi. The road leading to Jonha is a bit narrow but not so rough and rugged as well as arduous as that of Hundru. There is also a hospice Tourists rest house which accommodates Lord Gautam Budha's temple. This falls is named after Gautam as Gautamdhara too, it is approachable by road. The tourists can go upto Gautamdhara station by train also.
Ranchi is nature's bounty to mother India which has specially been adorned with falls and streams. Hundru falls is about 28 km. aways from Ranchi town. The Swarnarekha river falls from a height of 320 feet making a wonderful scene known as Hundru falls. During rainy season it takes a formidable form but in summer it turns into an exciting picnic spot
About 70 km. From Ranchi on way to Chakradharpur is located Hirni Falls. Having situated amidst dense forest Hirni has been favoured by nature for scenic beauties. The tourists are carried away by emotions and flight of imagination while observing Hirni.
Gonda Hill & Rock Garden
About 4 km. from G.P.O., Ranchi on Kanke Road,just in fornt of the CMPDIL Hq. Is situated the Gonda Hill with a water reservoir at its top. At the foot of the hill is a big lake known as Kanke Dam and a lucrative place for tourists.
Jagannathpur Temple & Hill
About 10 km. From Ranchi G.P.O. is another sight seeing place where the tourists can rejoice and worship. The old temple of lord Jagannath ,built in 1691 in the architectural style of Puri Temple stands like a fort on the top of the in the hill. Its car/chariot festival held light part on Ashadhmas draws a big crowd comprising of tribals and non-tribals. HEC township nearby is an added attraction.
Ranchi, being situated at an altitude of 21,40 feet from sea level, is a popular health and holiday resort and a place of sacred pilgrimate.Some comely sights in the town include Ranchi Hill,Tagore Hill,Ranchi Lake etc.A panoramic view of the town can be behond from the hill top.The Shiva Temple situated on the top of the hill,is an added attraction for the devotees for whom it assumes the places of reverence during Shravanmas same as that of Baijnath Dham (Deoghar).
About 3 km. from the Ranchi G.P.O. the Tagore Hill is about 300 ft. high. As the hill is associated with a history pertaining to Tagore family, it is known as Tagore Hill. A number of books are supposed to have been written by Rabindra Nath Tagore on the top of the hill. At the foot of the hill are situated the Ramakrishna Mission Ashram and its office and center of Divyayan and agrarian vocational institute.
Tribal Research Institute and Museum
The museum exhibits life and history of tribal people of Chotanagpur.