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Music of Jammu & Kashmir

Hafiz Nagma

Hafiz Nagma is based on the classical music of Kashmir- the Sofiyiana Kalam. The Sufiyana Kalam has its own ragas known as Muquam. The prominent instrument used in Hafiz Nagma is called Santoor-a hundred stringed instrument played with sticks. The danseuse in this tradition is known as 'Hafiza'.

Song of Habba Khatoon
Habba Khatoon was the renowned princess of Kashmir. Her feelings during her separation form the Yousuf King is depicted in this song. The song is based on the folk renderings of kashmiri Music.

Jagarna

This marriage song cum-dance form has the elements of theatre. Whjile the menfolk of the bridegroom's house have gone with the Barat woment folk are left alone in the house. The bridegroom's mother, aunts, mgradmother and other relations indulge in gossips revelations of their marital life and the behaviour of their husbands. But sometimes, in right earnest, they reveal some intimate incidents and spend the night in the atmosphere which is un-interrupted by menfolk in ints flow of unending gossip and the movement of frolicking feet.

Surma
This song in Dogri, set to dance reveals the anguish of a newly married girl whose husband is away in the Army. The ever increasing yearning of re-union is depicted through this song-dance.

Bakhan
This folk song is a widely prevalent form of mass entertainment in our region. The haunting Melody of Pahari songs add to the beauty and joy of daily life.There are certain songs which are independent of instruments. "Bakhan" is such a best example. "Bakhan" are in verse. The metre is irregular and is determined by modulation in tone. The movemtn of hand indicates the variations in the note. This is the only form of lyric in Dgri which resembles the Western harmony of sounds without loosing its individual note and rhythem.

Geetru
A dance-song of Dogra Pahari region of Jammu being performed at the occasion of feasts, festivals and marriages by the rural folk parties of this region. Male and female both participate in this dance-song in their traditional costumes. This type of dance-song is performed at any time of the day as well as night. Performing Arts

Some of the popular performing traditions of J&K are as follows :

Jammu Region

a) Kud
It is basically a ritual dance performed in honour of Lok Devatas. This dance style is performed mostly during nights. It is spontaneous dance and people of all ages and sexes participate in this folk dance form. Instruments used during this dance are Narshingha, chhaina, flute, drums etc. It is the rhythm of music which contrils the movement of participants. This dance continues for the whole night. Number of participants ranges from 20 to 30 members.

b) Heren
It is a traditional theatre form performed during Lohri festival by 10-15 members. This style is mostly performed in hilly regions of Jammu.

c) Fumenie and Jagarana
This dance style is performed by the ladies on the eve of groom's departure to inlaws house. Both the songs are sung by a group of females consisting 15-20 members. This traditional dance form depicts the feelings and emotions of women folk.

d) Bakh/Gwatri/Kark/Masade
It is a chorous narrative singing sung by a group of 10 singers without the accompaniment of any musical instruments.

e) Gwatri
It is a singing/ dance combined tradition in which the singers narrate some text which is enacted by the Gwatari dancers.

f) Karak
It is a tale ballet singing form sung by a community called 'Jogies'. They narrate a popular folk tale in their dance style, performed by three members with accompaniement of typical folk instrument called 'Rabab'.

g) Benthe
This is chorous singing tradition performed specific community of trible called Gujjar and Bakerwal. Dance is performed by 5-7 members.

Kashmir Region :

a) Bhand Pather

It is a traditional folk theatre style combination of play and dance in a satirical style where social traditions , evils are depicted and performed in various social and cultural functions. Bhand Jashan is performed by a group of 10 to 15 artists in their traditional style accompanied by light music for the entertainment of people.

b) Chakri
It is most popular form of Kashmiri folk music. It has some resemblance with chakra of mountaineous regions of Uttar Pradesh. Normally Garaha, Sarangi, Rabab were the musical instruments used in the past. But now thw harmonium too has made its way in its presentation.

c) Sufiana Music
Sofians musiqui came to Kashmir from Iran in the 15th century. Over the years it has established itself as the classical music form of Kashmir and has incorporated a number of Indian Ragas in its body. Hafiz Nagma in fact, used to be part of sofiana music. The instruments used in this form are Santoor, Sitar, Kashmiri Saz, Wasool or Tabala. In Hafiz Nagma a dancer is a female while her accompanists on various instruments are males. Hafiza moves her feet on musical notes.

There are only a few families in Kashmir who are practising this musical form in Kashmir. Whereas the tallest ustad Ghulam Mohd. Qaleenbaft is unable to move out because of health problems, Ustad Ghulam Mohd. Saznawaz and Ustad Abdul Ghani Namathali are imparting training to their family members and are the practising artists.

Ladakh Region

a) Marriage songs and dance (wedding dance)

In Ladakh marriage is conducted with great enthusiasm and lasts for at least a couple of days. The main feature of Ladakhi marriage is recitation of long narratives. Marriage songs are sung by the marriage party led by a leader. Singers wear unique costumes especially made for the gay ceremonies.

b) Jabro
This dance form is peculiar to Chang- Thang and Rong areas of Ladakh region. Both males and females face each other forming rows or circles and dance leaping hand in hand forwards and backwards reciting melodious songs.

c) Alley Yate
It is basically the dance of shepherds of Zanskar area of Ladakh region. It is a combination of poetry and dance. This dance is peculiar to the time when people go out of their homes with flocks.

Crafts

Carpet

A Carpet is a life long investment-it may well be the single most expensive purchase during your trip to Kashmir. Kashmiri carpets are world renowned for two things- they are hand made and they are always knotted, never tufted. It is extremely instructive to watch a carpet being made- your dealer can probably arrange it for you. Stretched tightly on a frame is the warp of Carpet. The weft threads are passed through, the 'talim' or design and color specifications are then worked out on this: a strand of yarn is looped through the warp & weft, knotted and then cut. The yarn used normally is silk, wool or silk and wool. Woolen carpets always have a cotton base Warp & Weft), silk usually have cotton base. Sometimes however, the base is also silk in which case you will see that the fringe is silk; the cost increases proportionately. Occasionally, carpets are made on a cotton base, mainly of woolen pile with silk yarn used as highlights on certain motifs. Therefore, a carpet with a pure silk pile may be referred to as a 80% silk carpet.

Carpet weaving in Kashmir was not originally indigenous but is thought to have come in by way of Persia. Till today most designs are distinctly Persian with local; variations. One example, however, of a typical Kashmiri design is the tree of life. Persian design not withstanding, any carpet woven in Kashmir is referred to as Kashmiri. The color-way of Carpet, and its details differentiate it from any other carpet. And while on the subject of colors, it should be kept in mind that although the colors of Kashmiri carpets are more subtle and muted than elsewhere in the country, only chemical dyes are used-vegetable dyes have not been available now for hundred years.

The knotting of the carpet is the most important aspect, determining its durability and value, in addition to its design. Basically, the more knots per square inch, the greater its value and durability. Also there are single and double knotted carpets. You can quiet easily identify one from the other on the reverse of the carpet. The effect that it has on the pile, too, is important- a double knotted carpet has a pile that bends when you brush it one way with your hand, and stands upright when it is brushed in other direction. A Single knotted carpet is fluffier and more resistant to touch.

Namdas
Far less expensive are these colorful floor coverings made from woolen and cotton fiber which has been manually pressed into shape. Prices vary with the percentage of wool- a Namda containing 80% wool being more expensive than one containing 20% wool. Chain stitch embroidery in woolen and cotton thread is worked on these rugs.

Papier Mache
Papier Mache is a distinct art. To make Papier Mache`, first paper is soaked in water till it disintegrates. It is then pounded, mixed with an adhesive solution, shaped over moulds, and allowed to dry and set before being painted and varnished. Paper that has been pounded to pulp has the smoothest finish in the final product. When the pounding has not been thorough, the finish is less smooth. The designs painted on objects of Papier Mache` are brightly colored. They vary in artistry and the choices of colors, and it is not difficult to tell a mediocre piece from an excellent one. Gold is used on most objects, either as the only color, or as the highlight for certain motifs, and besides the finish of the product, it is the quality of the gold used which determines the price. Pure Gold leaf which has the unmistakable luster, is far more expensive than bronze dust or gold poster paint. It also has much longer life and will never fade or tarnish. Varnish which is applied to the finished product, imparts a high gloss and smoothness which increases with every coat. Cardboard, usually indistinguishable from Papier Mache`, gives slightly when pressed firmly. Otherwise the only difference is in the price, cardboard being cheaper than Papier Mache`.

Chain Stitch and Crewel Furnishings
Because of the high quality of embroidery done on wall hangings and rugs, Kashmiri crewel work is in great demand all over the world. Chain stitch, be it in wool, silk or cotton, is done by hook rather than any needle. The hook is referred to as ari, and quality for quality, hook work covers a much larger area than needle work in the same amount of time. All the embroidery is executed on white cotton fabric, pre-shrunk by the manufacturers. The intrinsic worth of each piece lies in the size of the stitches and the yarn used. Tiny stitches are used to cover the entire area-the figures or motifs are worked in striking colors; the background in a single color, made up of a series of coin sized concentric circles which impart dynamism and a sense of movement to a design. The background fabric should not be visible through the stitches.

Crewel is basically similar to chain stitch. It is also Chain stitch done on White background, but here the motifs, mainly stylish flowers, do not cover the entire surface, and the background is not embroidered upon. Wool is almost invariably used in Crewel work and color ways are not as elaborate as in Chain stitch. They make excellent household furnishings being hand or machine washable.

Saffron, Walnuts, Almonds, Honey
Pampore, outside Srinagar, is the only place in the world besides Spain where saffron is grown. The crocus Sativus which blooms for a brief month in the year, has six golden stamens and one crimson one. It is the crimson Stamen which when collected and dried is referred to as the most expensive spice in the world. Sealed jars of this Spice, with the Government laboratory's stamp approval, are available all over Srinagar. When buying loose saffron, sampling one strand is enough, for the flavor and fragrance of saffron are unmistakable. The climate of Kashmir is ideal for walnut and almond trees which grow here in abundance. Natural honey too, is a produce of the apiaries which abound in the state.

Silks, Tweeks
Sericulture and tweed weaving are more important industries in Kashmir, with departments of the State got. Closely monitoring the process. Interestingly, just as little or no raw-material for tweed comes from Kashmir, almost no weaving and printing of silk is done in the state. However, the cocoon reared in Kashmir is of the superior quality, yielding an extremely fine fiber, and any silk woven from this thread becomes known. The fineness of the yarn lends itself particularly well to the weaves known as 'chinon' and 'crepe de chine', in addition to the universally recognized silk weave.

Tweed on the other hand is woven in Kashmir with pure, never blended, wool. The resultant fabric, made with imported know-how, compares favorably with the best in the world. It is available by the length occasionally as ready to wear garments.

Pherans
This garment, somewhere between a coat and a cloak, is eminently suited to the Kashmiri way of life, being loose enough to admit the inevitable brazier of live coals which is carried around in much the same way as a hot water bottle, Men's pherans are always made of tweed or coarse wool; women's pherans, somewhat more stylized, are most commonly made of raffel, which splashes of ari or hook embroidery at the throat, cuffs and edges. The quality of embroidery and thickness of the raffel determines the price.

Shawls
There are three fibers from which the Kashmiri shawls are made- wool, Pashmina and shahtoosh. The prices of three cannot be compared - woolen shawls being within the reach of the most modest budget, and Shahtoosh being a once-in-a-lifetime purchase. Woolen shawls are popular because of the embroidery worked on them which is a special to Kashmir. Both embroidery and the type of wool used causes differences in price. Wool woven in Kashmir is raffel and is 100% pure. Many kinds of embroidery are worked on shawls - 'sozni' or needlework is generally done in a panel along the sides of the shawl. Motifs, usually abstract designs or stylized paisleys and flowers are worked in one or two, occasionally three colors, all subdued. Another type of needle embroidery is popularly known as Papier Mache` work because of the design and the style in which it is executed. This is done either in broad panels or either side of the breadth of a shawl, or covering the entire surface of a stole. Another type of embroidery is ari or hook embroidery; motifs are well-known flower design finely worked in concentric rings of chain stitch.

Pashina is unmistakable for its softness. Pashmina yarn is spun from the hair of the ibex found at 14,000 ft above the sea level, although pure pashmina is expensive, the cost is sometimes brought down by blending it with rabbit fur or with wool.

Shahtoosh , the legendary 'ring shawl' is incredible for its lightness, softness and warmth. The astronomical price it commands in the market is due to the scarcity of raw-material. High in the plateaux of Tibet and the eastern part of Ladakh, at an altitude of above 5,000 meters, roam Pantholops Hodgosoni or Tibetan antelope. During grazing, a few strands of the downy hair from the throat are shed and it is these which are painstakingly collected until there are enough for a shawl. Yarn is spun either from shahtoosh alone, or with pashmina, bringing down the cost somewhat. In the case of pure shahtoosh too, there are many qualities-the yarn can be spun so skillfully as to resemble a strand of silk. Not only are shawls made from such fine yarn extremely expensive, they can only be loosely woven and are too flimsy for embroidery to be done on them. Unlike woolen or Pashmina shawls, Shahtoosh is seldom dyed-that would be rather like dyeing gold! Its natural color is mousy brown, and it is, at the most, sparsely embroidered.

Basketry
Willow rushes that grow plentifully in marshes and lakes in Kashmir are used to make charmingly quaint objects, ranging from shopping baskets and lampshades to tables and chairs, all generally in expensive. To increase their life-span, unvarnished products should be chisen and frequentle sprayed with water, particularly in hot, dry climates, to prevent them from brittle.

Walnut Wood
Kashmir is the only part of India where the walnut tree grows. Its color, grains and inherent sheen are unique and unmistakable, and the carving and fret work that is done on this wood is of a very superior quality. There are two types of walnut trees - the fruit bearing species whose wood is so well- known, and one which bears no fruit and is locally known as 'zangul'. Zangul has none of the beauty of walnut wood, being much less strong and possessing no grain, and will not be dealt with here. The walnut wood is almost black, and the grain here is much more pronounced than the wood of the trunk which is lighter in color. The branches have the lightest color, being almost blonde, and have no noticeable grain. The intrinsic worth of the wood from each part of the tree differs- that from the root being the most expensive and the branches having the lowest price.

When a dealer buys a whole tree and leaves it to the season, a part of his capital becomes blocked for that period and this will naturally be reflected in the cost of his product. A cheaper product, on the other hand, is liable to warp, or in case it is taken to warmer climes, will crack or shrink.

Knots on any tree are natural and inevitable, but as their appearance is commonly thought to mar the beauty and smoothness of the finished product, knots are usually concealed skillfully in the sawing, as it is difficult, though not impossible, to mask them while carving.

Carving is the demonstration of the carver's skill, and walnut is eminently suitable for this, being one of the strongest varieties of wood. There are several varieties of carving-deep carving usually with dragon or lotus flower motifs, two inches deep or more; shallow carving, half an inch deep done all over the flat surface; open or lattice work, usually depicting the Chinar motif.; and most popularly, semi carving, which is a thin panel along the rim of a surface, with perhaps a Centre motif. The advantage of the semi-carving is that it allows the grain of wood to be displayed, together with the carver's skill. Naturally deep carving with all the skill and labor required, is the most expensive.

Wax polishing brings out the sheen inherent in walnut wood, and is by far the most popular finish. Because varnish obscures the grain of the wood and alters its hue, it is seldom used. When choosing objects made from walnut wood, keep in mind that the type of carving and part of the tree used will affect the price.

Copper and Silverware
The old city abounds with shops where objects of copper line the walls, the floor and even the ceiling made generally for the local market. Craftsmen can often be seen engraving objects of household utility-samovars, bowls, plates and trays. Floral, stylized, geometric, leaf and sometimes calligraphic motifs are engraved or embossed on copper, and occasionally silver, to cover the entire surface with intricate designs which are then oxidized, the better to stand out from the background. The work known as 'naqash' determines the price of the object, as does the weight.