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 Madhya Pradesh
  Madhya Pradesh
  Great Cities
 - Bhopal Division
 - Chambal Division
 - Gwaliar Division
 - Indore Division
 - Jabalpur Division
 - Rewa Division
 - Sagar Division
 - Ujjain Division
  Fairs and Festivals
  Art and Craft
  Map



 Sagar division

Chhatarpur District

The District Chhatarpur was known after the name of the great warrior of the region Maharaja Chhatrasa. This District was previously under the then Vindhya Pradesh. However at the time of formation of the Madhya Pradesh, it was included in Madhya Pradesh on 1st November 1956. The District is situated at North East border of Madhya Pradesh. This District is spread over an area of 8687 Square Kms. with longitudes and latitudes of 24.06 & 25.20 on North 78.59 - 80.26 on East respectively. The District is touched by Uttar Pradesh in the East, Tikamgarh (M.P.) in West and Sagar (M.P.) in South East. Chhatarpur District has been divided into 7 Tehsils, 8 Development Blocks and 558 Gram Panchayats. Total villages in the district are 1,192 of which 116 are deserted. There are 5 Assembly Constituencies and one Lok-Sabha Constituency. As per the 1991 census, the total population of the district was 11,58,076 out of which 9,34,552 was rural population & 2, 23, 524 is urban. Out of total population 2,74,438 are sheduled caste and 43,482 are sceduled tribes. There are 6,23,878 males and 5,34,198 famales in the District. Total Literates in the District are 3,22,757 of which 2,33,500 are males and 89,257 females. The major crops of the Distcit are Wheat, Paddy and Jowar, Main vegetations are Jamun, Teak, Mahua, Kher and Achar. Total sown area of the District is 4,48,078. Heotares and Net Irrigated Area is 1,46,217. Total forest area of the district is 659.52 Sq.Kms. The Annual Avarage Rainfall of the District is 1000-1200 m.m. Pyrophite Dysphor, Okar and Chhui Mitti are the minerals found in the District. Best season to visit is between July to March.

How to Reach

By Air

Regular service link Khajuraho with Delhi, Agra and Varanasi.

By Train

The nearest Rail Heads are Harpalpur (94 km.) and Mahoba (61 km.) Jhansi (172 km.) for those travelling from Delhi and Madras. The Satna District (117 km.) is the nearby Rail Head for the people coming from Mumbai, Calcutta and Varanasi through Mumbai-Allahabad line of the Central Railway.

By Road

Khajuraho is connected by regular buses with Satna, Harpalpur, Jhansi and Mahoba.

Places of Interest


Western Group

Kandariya Mahadeo
Chaunsat Yogini
Chitragupta Temple
Vishwanath Temple
Lakshmana Tample
Matangeswara Temple
Parsvanath Temple
Ghantai Temple
Adinath temple

Southern Group

Duladeo Temple
Chaturbhuj Temple

Western Group

Kandariya Mahadeo

The largest, most typical Khajuraho temple. It soars 31 m high. This temple is dedicated to Shiva. The sanctum sanctorum enshrines a lingam. The main shrine is exquisitely carved and features in delicate details, gods, goddesses, celestial maidens and lovers. Particularly noteworthy are the entrance arch, the ceilings and pillars of the interior compartments.

Chaunsat Yogini

This is the only granite temple and earliest surviving shrine of the group (900 A.D.) It is dedicated to Kali. Only 35 shrines are available now out of original 65 shrines. Another Kali temple (originally dedicated to Vishnu) is the Devi Jagdambe Temple.

Chitragupta Temple

Facing eastwards to the rising sun, the temple is dedicated to the Sun God, Surya. The image of the deity in the inner sanctum is particularly imposing; five feet high, and driving a horse-drawn Chariot. The group scenes depict royal processions, hunting scenes and group dances, reflecting the lavish lifestyle of the Chandela Courts.

Vishwanath Temple

A three-headed image of Brahma is enshrined in this temple. The approach is equally impressive, with lions flanking the Northern and Elephants in the Southern steps that lead up to it. A Nandi bull faces the shrine.

Lakshmana Tample

The lintel over the entrance of this beautiful Vaishnavite temple shows the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva with Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort. The finely craved sanctum has a three-headed idol of Vishnu's incarnations Narsimha and Varaha. This boar incarnation also appears in a Nine-feet-high statue at the Varaha Temple.

Matangeswara Temple

The temple is still a living places of worship. It is dedicated to Shiva. This temple has an Eight feet high lingam and is outside the precincts of the Western Group.

Parsvanath Temple

The group's largest Jain Temple and exquisite in detail. The sculptures on the Northern outer wall are particularly noteworthy. The themes depict in charming detail, every day activity. Within, a throne faces the bull Emblem of the first tirthankara, Adinath. The Parsvanath image was installed in 1860.

Ghantai Temple

This Jain temple has a frieze which depicts the 16 dreams of Mahavira's mother, and a Jain goddess on a winged Garuda.

Adinath temple

This temple is dedicated to the Jain Saint, Adinath. The temple is lavishly embellished with sculpted figures, including yakshis. The three Hindu temples of the group are the Brahma, containing a four-faced lingam, the Vamana, which is adorned on its outer walls with carving of apsaras in a variety of sensuous attitudes; and the Javari, with a richly-carved gateway and exterior sculptures.

Southern Group

Duladeo Temple

This temple is dedicated to Shiva. The apsara and ornamented figures are the temple's most striking features.

Chaturbhuj Temple

This temple has massive, intricately-carved image of Vishnu in the sanctum.

District Damoh

District Damoh at a glance
Area 7,3,06 Sq Km
Geographic Location 23-09-0N , 79-03-0 E
Roads :  
National Highway
State Highway SH- 37(183 Km)
Tar Road 1437 Km
Other Road 1112 Km
Electrification :  
Electrified Villages 1110
Non Electrified Villages 274
ICDS Centres 7
Anganwadi Centres 756
Ration Shops 431
Urban 46
Rural 385
Total villages 1384
Habitiated Villages 1193
Unhabitiated Villages 191
Forest Villages 0
Towns (Urban) 5
Revenue Sub Divisions 3
Tehsils 7
Sub Tehsils 0
Zila Panchayat 1
Janpad Panchayat 7
Gram Panchayat 456
Assembly Segments 4
Post Offices 1
Branch Post Offices 29
Police Stations 17
Police Out posts  
Govt. Degree Colleges 6
Govt. Higher Sec. Schools 48
Govt. Middle Schools 260
Govt. Primary Schools 1267
Central Schools 1
Registered Unemployees 30360

Places of Interest

Jatashankar
Nohleshwar Temple (Nohta)
Giri Darshan
The Fort of Singaurgarh
Nidan Kund
Nazara
Narsingarh

Jatashankar

This Shiv Temple is about 1 Km away from Nohta village. Shiv is also known as 'Mahadev' and 'Nohleshwar'. It was built around 950-1000 A.D. According to some people the credit of building this temple goes to the queen of Kalchury King Avni Varma of Chalukya Vansha. The Shiv temple of Nohta is the most important representation or the design of the architecture of Kalchury style of temple buildings of the 10th Century. It is built on a high platform. It's parts are - 'Panch rath', 'Garbhgrih', 'Amtral', 'Mandap' and 'Mukh Mandap'.

Nohleshwar Temple (Nohta)

Situated on the High way from Damoh to Jabalpur 5 km from Jabera and 7 km from Sigrampur toward Damoh on a green hill in the jungle a beautiful double storeyed rest house cum watch tower was built by the Forest Dept. It is a beautiful piece of Architecture. From the main road a narrow path along of the bank of a tank reaches this rest house. The reservation to stay in the rest house can be made at DFO office at Damoh. The beautiful sight of the roads of the small hills and the fascinating view of the sunrise and the sunset thrills the visitors. This view can be seen from the terrace of the rest house. The wild animals also can be seen at night.

Giri Darshan

About 6 km away from Sigrampur the ruins of a fort of an historical importance can be found. There was civilization here in older times. King Vane Basore had built a big and strong fort and the Gawe kings ruled over here for a long time. At the end of the 15th century Gaund king Dalpati Shah with her queen Durgawati lived here. After his death queen Durgawati fought with Asaf Ali the chief of the army of Mughal king Akbar. There is also a lake here, which is full of lotus flowers. This is an ideal picnic spot.

The Fort of Singaurgarh

Almost 1/2 km from the Bhainsaghat Rest House towards the Bhainsa village, a road goes to this waterfall. 1 km from the main road a stream between the high black rocks flows down from more than 100 ft's hight. This is called Nidan Kund. During the months of July and August there is much water in the stream so the sight of this fall from the front is breath taking. It becomes a perfect picnic spot in September and October as water in the stream is reduced. There are steps like formation on the black rocks against the flow of the stream so it makes a beautiful sight when the water flows down over these rocks.

Nidan Kund

3 km from Bhainsa village towards Kalumar on W.B.M. road there is road leading to the spot called "Nazara". This place has been developed as a platform on the top of the mountain giving a breath taking overview of the Rani Durgawati Abhyaran. The beautiful sight of the thick forest can be enjoyed from here. The caves of the wild animals on the hills can also be seen. Wild animals are also spotted roaming around in the forest.

Nazara

It is the highest point of the Vidhyachal mountain ranges. On Bhainsa - Kalumar road there cuts a forest road which is almost 6 kms long. A Breathtaking view of the area around it can be seen from here. This peak is 2467 ft. high from the sea level. The twinkling light of Jabalpur city can be seen from here at clear nights. It is not very easy to climb this peak so it is convenient to use a jeep or any other 4 wheeler.

Narsingarh

Narsingarh is a small village between the banks of two rivers - Kopra and Sonar. It is about 20 kms away from Damoh on the Damoh-Chhatarpur State Highway No.37. It takes its name from its ancient ruler, Narsingh. In the history of Madhya Bharat, Narsingarh assumes great importance because it was the gate way from North to the Central India. Mughals invaded it and after a fierce battle captured it and changed its name from Narsingarh to Nasrathgarh. Marathas invaded it and captured it from the Mughals and restored its original name. Britishers subjugated it from the Marathas. It had an ancient Fort, the remnants of which are still standing as mute witnesses to the history of Narsingarh. The present population of the village is around 7000 and the main occupation of the local population is agriculture. Its climate is tropical and it receives moderate rains. Because of the Limestone deposits in and around it, Mysore Cements Ltd., a Company owned and controlled by the "House of Birlas", constructed a large cement plant - Diamond Cements - at Narsingarh with a capacity of One million tons per annum. The unit started production in the year 1983. Diamond Cements at Narsingarh has been a boon to the people of the area. It provides direct employment to about 1200 people and indirect employment to a large number of local people. In line with the basic philosophy of the Management to take good care of its employees, it has built an excellent township with all modern amenities like good residential complex, Co-Operative Store, Dairy, CBSE affiliated English medium school, Hospital, Cable TV connections, Recreation Club etc.. An aerial view of the place shows the factory and adjacent areas as an oasis as a result of the extensive tree plantation done by it in an otherwise barren stretch of bushy and rocky landscape. The Company has built a magnificent Radha-Krishna Temple, besides a Hanuman Temple, within the Township Complex where religious discourses by learned Saints and Pandits are held on auspicious occasions. The temples in the township are open to the local population and villagers throughout the year and a large number of them visit and worship in the temple every day. An old Shri Ram Temple in Narsingarh Village which was abandoned and lying in dilapidated condition ever since Britishers' time was renovated by the Company and this is now one of the most beautiful temples in the area. Apart from this, the Company has renovated and is maintaining other temples in several adjoining villages.

Panna district

Panna district is located in the north-eastern part of Madhya Pradesh. It forms the northern district of Sagar Commissionerate Division. The district extends from 23o45" N to 25o10" N and from 79o45' E to 80o40' E. The shape of district is roughly triangular. As per the 1991 census, the population of Panna district was 687945 out of which the rural population was 598378 and urban was 89567. The district is divided into five revenue blocks in which there are 1048 villages and 6 towns. Panchayat-wise, Panna has one Zila Panchayat and five Janpad Panchayats. Panna is famous for its diamond mines located in a belt of about 80 kms across the town. Panna district is entirely dependent on road transport. Panna is picturesque place lying strategically in a valley amidst forest covered by lofty hills. Panna is famous for its temples which strikes a very fine blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture. There are in all 314 temples in Panna. Also there are Maszids in Panna for offering Namaz and Churches for prayers. With a sanctuary for rare wild life and avifauna & a diamond mine, Panna has transformed a royal past into a vibrant and lively present. Though famous for its rich Diamond mines, Panna is industrially still a backward district and hence the State Industries Department has placed it in "C" category. The District Industries Centre has established small scale industrial areas at Satna Naka Panna and Udyog Giri Puraina Panna. There are only small scale industries in Panna. Most of them are engaged in Stone mining and others are engaged in making Coal Brackets, Chlorinated Paraffin Box, Ice, Edible Oil, Agricultural Implements, etc. There are government and private colleges in Panna. Schools are also government and private. Government schools are clustered into groups and the centre of the group is a Higher Secondary or a High School under which a number of middle and primary schools come.

Diamonds in Panna

The diamond mines located in a belt of 80 kms across the district. At present the major diamond mining is assigned to a Government of India Undertaking, National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) - Diamond Mine Project. The belt starts from Paharikhera North-East to Majhgawan South-West with breadth around 30 kms. There are several open diamond mines working in small scale for diamond exploration in Panna.

How to reach

From Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, Panna is about 500 Kms by Rail route (upto Satna), around 400 Kms by Road and around 40 Kms by Air route. The nearest Airport is Khajuraho, the world famous heritage. Khajuraho is directly connected to the national capital, New Delhi by Air. From Khajuraho Airstrip, there is only 45 Kms drive for Panna. The nearest Railway station is Satna which is directly connected to Bhopal, Jabalpur & Delhi and from Satna, there is about 70 Kms drive for Panna.

Places of Interest

Panna Tiger Reserve

Panna National Park was created in 1981. It was declared as Panna Tiger Reserve in 1994. The National Park consists of areas from the former Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary created in 1975. Panna National Park is the natural habitat of a wide variety of birds and wild species. Panna is the twenty second Tiger Reserve of India and fifth in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is situated in the Vindhya Ranges and spreads over Panna and Chhatarpur districts in the north of the state. The Ken River, which flows through the Reserve is a home for Gharial and maggar and other aquatic fauna. The Reserve is open for the visitors for eight months in a year, i.e., from November to June. There is a ban on diesel vehicles in side the Reserve. The Park does not have transport facility for visitors. Accommodation can be made available in the Park Inspection Huts at Madala & Hinouta (two suits each) on first-come-first-serve basis and on the condition of availability. Guides are available at both the entry points.

Flora

Tectona Grandis, Diospyros melanoxylon, Madhuca indica, Buchanania lanzan, Anogeissus latifolia, A. pendula, Lannea coromandalica, Boswellia serrata, Acacia catechu, Zizyphus spp., Aegle marmelos, Butea monosperma, Gardenia spp., Sterculia urens, common bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus, etc.

Fauna

Mammals


Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Wolf, Wild Dog, Wild Boar, Hyena, Samber, Chital, Nilgai, Chinkara, Chausingha, Porcupine, Jungle Cat, Rusty Spotted Cat, Hare, Rattle, Tree Shrew, Gerbil, etc. Avifauna :- About 200 species have been identified which include host of winter migratory birds. Aquatic Animals :- Both maggar and gharial are found in Ken river besides host of fish species, turtles & other.

Endangered Species

Tiger, Leopard, Carcal, Four-horned antelope, Indian Wolf, Pangolin, Rusty Spotted Cat, Sloth Bear and Gharial, found in the Park, are included in Schedule I of WPA, 1972.

How to reach

The Park is situated 25 kms from Khajuraho, a world heritage site which is half an hour drive from Madla Entry Point. Hinouta, the second gate of the Park is 20 kms from Panna town. Khajuraho is the nearest Airstrip which is directly connected to the National Capital, New Delhi. Taxies are available all time from Khajuraho to Panna.

Climate

There are three distinct seasons :
Summer - March till mid June.
Rainy Season - Mid June till Mid September.
(the period from Mid Sept. till Mid Nov. is again dry & hot.)
Winter - Mid November till February.

Temples

Mahamati Prannathji Temple

This is the most important temple of pranamies which reflects their social and religious life. The temple is completed in 1692 AD. It is believed that Prannathji lived here and will remain here and thus became the highest Pranami tirtha as Mahamati's Punyasthali, and hence Panna is the param dham for Pranamies. This temple reminds one of the Taj Mahal. The Rang Mahal has eight pahals and each pahal has 201 domes. The spherical central dome is as Muslim architecture and the lotus form on this dome is according to Hindu tradition. The glistering divine golden kalasha is accompanied by the divine panja which denotes Mahamati's blessing and signifies the Aksharatita Purna Brahman. The main entrance of central dome is called Kaman Darwaza, made of silver. On Sharada Purnima every year, thousands of people gather here to celebrate the Mahotsava.

Padmavati Devi or Badi Devi Temple

It is located on the north west corner near Kilkila river and it is believed to be very old temple. The religious and historical importance of this temple is immense under the belief that goddess padmavati, who is still alive and protector of the prosperity and happiness of Panna. During Nav-Durgotsava thousands of devotees gather here. Maharaja Chhatrasal Bundela accept it as his Raj Lakshami although their kuldevi is Vindhyavasani.

Baldeoji Temple

The temple is in Paladian style as a scaled down replica of St. Paul's Cathedral in London under supervision of Mr. Manly, an Italian expert. The temples structure improves upon the Romanesque and Gothick styles prevalent in Britain in eighteenth century. The temple consists of a large hall called maha mandapa with massive pillars and is built on a raised platform so that one may obtain darshan even from out side the main gate (from the road side). The attractive image of Shri Baldeoji is built in black shaligrami stone. Baldeoji temple is the finest building in area and represents the zenith of Panna architecture.

Jugal Kishoreji Temple

This is the main Hindu temple in Panna and was built in Bundela temple style. Nat mandapa, Bhog mandapa, Garbh grih and Pradkshana path are present in the temple. The attire of the Lord is not Brij but Bundelkhandi. As per the common belief, the idol came to Panna from Vrindavan via Orchha. It is believed that a pilgrimage of the four Dhams would render itself otiose, if it does not conclude with a visit of the Jugal Kishoreji Temple.

Other Temples

Other than the above temples, Ram-Janki Temple, Swamiji Temple, Sarang Temple, Baiji Temple, Govindji Temple are some of the important temples in Panna. All the above temples are located in the Panna town itself except Sarang Temple, which is about 20 kms from the town. Apart from the temples and tiger reserve, there are so many places of tourists interest in Panna like, District Archaeological Museum, waterfalls, Fort, Reserve Forests & other scenic beauty.

Falls & Views

Pandav Fall

Pandav Fall is around 12 kms from Panna towards Khajuraho. It is situated inside the Panna National Park but very close to the national highway. Easily accessible even during monsoon, it is a perennial fall fed by local springs. Lush green surrounding makes the fall spectacular. At the foot of fall there are some ancient caves overlooking a large pool of water. About 100 ft high, the fall has a beautiful picnic spot.

Gatha Fall

Gatha fall is situated on the other side of the highway. About 300 ft high, the fall is very impressive and impose during monsoon and presents a very pleasant sight from the road itself.

Sagar District

The district of Sagar lies in the north central region of Madhya Pradesh. It was spelled as Saugar during the British period. It is situated between 23 deg 10' and 24 deg 27' north latitude and between 78 deg 4' and 79 deg 21' east longitude, the district has a truly central location in the country. The tropic of cancer passes through the southern part of the district. The district is bounded on the north by Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh , on the south by the district of Narsinghpur and Raisen, on the west by the district of Vidisha , and on the east by the district of Damoh, which was previously formed the part of Sagar District. On the notheast and northwest, the district adjoins Chhattarpur and Guna districts, respectively. The origin of the name comes from the Hindi word SAGAR meaning lake or sea, apparently because of the large and once beautiful lake around which the town of Sagar has been built. Sagar district is the sixteenth largest district in size in the State, and the third largest in the Jabalpur revenue division. The district is divided into nine tahsils, viz, Sagar, Banda, Khurai, Rehli, Garhakota, Bina, Rahatgarh, Kesli and Deori each in the charge of a Tahsildar or a Sub-Divisional Officer. According to the Surveyor-General of India, the district has a total area of 6375 sq Kms and is shaped roughly like a triangle. It has industries such as oil and flour milling, saw-milling, ghee processing, handloom cotton weaving, bidi manufacture and railway and engineering works. It is known in all over India due to its University named as Dr. Harisingh Gaur University and Army Cantonment and recently it has come into lime light due to "Bhagyodyay Tirth" a charitable hospital named after a Jain Sant Shri VidyaSagarji Maharaj. It is known for Police Training College which are only two in Madhya Pradesh other one is in Indore. Head quarter of Forensic Science Lab is also in SAGAR. Sagar lies in an extensive plain broken by low, forested hills and watered by Sonar river. Wheat, chickpeas, soghum, and oilseeds are chief crops of the region, there is extensive cattle raising. Sandstone, Limestone, iron ore and asbestos deposits are worked. The archaeological site nearby Eran has revealed several Gupta inscriptions. District Sagar is predominantly a Scheduled Caste/Backward class district. These together form about 75% of the district. The district has sizable population of tribals who are named as Rajgonds after their kingdom. Most widely spoken language of the district is Hiundi. The people of Sagar possess a rich heritage of songs and dance. The most popular folk-dances commonly known are, baredi, moni, saira and dhimaryai. Baredi is a folk-dance of cattle herds who often perform it immediately after Diwali festival. Moni dance derives its name from the practice of observing silence throughout the day the dance is performed. Saira dance is performed with sticks in hand, usually accompanied with meaningful and melodious songs.

The Lake

Sagar Lake is situated in the heart of Sagar city ( 23 degree 50 Minutes N: 78 degree 45 Minutes E and 517 MSL) with an area of 82 hectares . It is a shallow, rained lake with a small catchment (588 hectares), and its north westward drainage agrees well with the general north westward drainage pattern of the district (Mishra, 1969). The entire lake can be divided into two parts; the main lake occupying an area 68 hectares and a small wetland of 14 hectares . The main lake is well protected by a large number of ghats, houses, roads and a stone fencing wall all around, except on the southern open side which ultimately terminates in the satellitic wetland which is connected to the main lake by a narrow passage through the earthen bound. The rain water from the south-western side enters in the satellite lake through the feeder canal in the west, whereas the outflow is through Mongha weir in the main lake situated at the back of the Ganga Mandir. This weir regulates the outflow and helps to maintain the water level. The main lake is shallower on the north-eastern, eastern and south-western sides, with its deepest point (5.5m) near the fort side and the average depth is around 2 meters. The lake is used for bathing, washing clothes, recreation, navigation, Trapa cultivation etc. A large number of cattle may be seen wallowing specially at the southern side, disturbing and churning the sediments. The main morphometric features of the lake are given as under :- Water spread area - 1.1 Sq.Km. Catchment area - 5.88 Sq.Km. Maximum Water level - 109.50 M. Full Reservoir level - 108.21 M. Quantity of inflow - 62 M.ft. Maximum depth - 5.5 M. .JY

How to reach

The district is accessible by rail as the town of Sagar lies on the Bina -Katni branch line of Central(Railway Time Table) railway. Sagar is 76 Km from Bina which is on the Bombay Delhi main line. The district is traversed by first class roads which connect it with important towns like Damoh and Jabalpur on the east and south east, respectively, Lalitpur and Jhansi on the north, Chhattarpur on the north east and Bhopal on the south-west. Bhopal the capital of Madhya Pradesh is about 208 Km from Sagar by road.

Animal Husbandry

The cattle besides being a source of milk supply are used as draught animal for the plough or the cart. Without cattle no cultivation would be possible, without cattle no produce could be transported.

Dairy Farming

The Civil Veterinary Department, Madhya Pradesh established a dairy farm at Ratona on 1st Octber 1946. It is situated at a distance of seven miles from Sagar, on the right side of Sagar-Bhopal Road. Tharparkar cows and murrah breeds of buffaloes are being kept at the dairy farm for the production of milk. Hariana cows were also kept for this purpose The dairy is at present supplying good amount of milk of milk per day to the Sagar Town It also supplies bulls for breeding milch cattle.

Cattle Fairs

The periodical fairs held in different places in the district stimulate the development of the quality of cattle. The weekly markets at Khurai attract a large number and variety of cattle. Similar markets are held at Kesli in Rehli tahsil and at Rahatgarh in Sagar tahsil. But by far the largest market is during the annual fair held at Garhakota. It is held from Basant Panchami to Holi every year and is reputed to be of ancient origin, having been started by Raja Mardan Singh some 150 years ago. The fair is still called after his name and is said to be largest fair in the Mahakoshal region of the State. The animals bought and soid at the fair are bulls, bullocks, cows, buffaloes and horses.

Poultry Farming

The birds are used for food and egg production. As the eggs are gradually occupying increasing place in the Indian diet on account of their nutritive value, their demand is also steadily increasing. Consequently improved methods are being adopted for poultry farming with a view to stepping up their production. White Leghorn which is a good laying breed is getting popular in the district.

Fisheries

A large variety of fishes are found in the district. The more common species have been mentioned in chapter I. Only four varieties of major carps, viz., labeo rohita, labeo calbasu, catla catla and cirrhina mrigal have been taken up for pond culture in the district.

Forests

Village papers recorded an area of 7,30,856 acres (1,142 sq miles) in the district as forests in the year 1959-60. This came to about 29 per cent of the total geographical area of the district. According to the Departmental figures forests cover an area of 1,065.35 sq. miles consisting of 739.80 sq.miles of 'Reserved' forests and 325.55 sq. miles of 'Protected' forests. Besides this an area of about 92 sq. miles of forests (classified as chhota-ghas) is under the control of the Revenue Department. The forests of Sagar district belong to the Northern Tropical Dry-Deciduous type according to Champion's Classification, the forests of the district can be considered under the following broad sub-types:

Teak forests
Teak forest on alluvium.
Teak forest on trrap. sandstone etc.
Mixed forests.
Khair forests.

Places of Interest

Rahatgarh, Tehsil Sagar

A small town 60 km west of Sagar on Bhopal Sagar Road renowned for its battlement ramparts, its gates and its ruins of palaces temples and mosques. It is picturesquely situated on the steep bank of the river Bina which is crossed at this point by a fine bridge of fourteen arches, completed in 1863. Close to the town stands the famous fort of Rahatgarh. It outer wall consists of 26 enormous towers, some of which were used as dwellings connected by curtain walls and enclosing a space of 66 acres. Two miles away from the fort is a waterfall nearly 50 feet high in picturesque surroundings.

Khimlasa, Tehsil Khurai

Khimlasa is said to have been founded by a Mohammedan noble and was mahal in the sarkar of Raisen of the subah of Malwa. The town of Khimlasa is enclosed within a fortified wall built of stone rubble more or less coursed. In the centre of the town is a bastion fort of which the gateways alone form an interesting feature. One side of the fort is the dargah of the Panch Pirs, with an elaborately carved perforated screen work, which deserves a special mention.

Abchand, Tehsil Sagar

In the ravines of river Gadheri, ensconced in the dense growth of Abchand reserve forest ( 23 45' N and 78 55' E), about 22 miles east of Sagar on the Sagar-Damoh road, exist about a dozen rock-cut caves with paintings of the same type as found at Singhanpur and Adamgarh. The largest cave is about 40 feet in length and its walls contain more than a dozen paintings showing activities of the pre-historic men. The hunting scenes represent individual or group of hunters. They are equipped with bows and arrows, spears and other weapons. The game animals shown in these paintings are bison's, bulls, deer antelopes, tiger, boars etc. In one of the Shelters a fierce fight between two tigers is fitfully depicted. The primitive people seem to have amused themselves with songs and dances. At one place seven figures are shown dancing hand-in- hand in a row. In front of them are played instruments like drums, dhapli and flutes. The colours used in these paintings are yellow, green, red, black, and white. The red colour shows different shades, dark orche and pink. The super- imposition or overlapping is also clear in some cases. There are also some symbolic representations such as the swastika, taurine, cross and the tree within railing symbols.

Baleh, Tehsil Rehli

Baleh, Tehsil Rehli Situated in 23 degree 35 N and 79 degree 10 E it is a village 36 miles southeast of Sagar and 11 miles from Rehli with which it is connected by a road. A record found here mention Palvana or Yalavana Pattala and refers to a Chandika temple. Formerly the estate of Baleh consisting of 53 villages belong to a gond family of Patehra, which being driven out of Deori, settled here in 1747. It has some old tanks and betel vine gardens producing a leaf of some reputation.

Bamora, Tehsil Khurai

Bamora, Tehsil Khurai - A large village, lying 23 degree 35'N and 79 degree 05'E is a railway station on the Bina-Itarsi line of the Central Railway. There is a ruined temple built of stone without mortar similar to the one at Janjgir. The date of erection is not known, but it is believed to be very ancient. It contains a small stone image of a Varaha and one of a horse with rider. In one corner is an image of Shiva placed there since the temple passed out of its original use. There are also Buddhist ruins in the village.

Bhapel, Tehsil Sagar

Bhapel, Tehsil Sagar - A village situated in 23 degree 45'N and 87 degree 35'E, is 9 miles from Sagar on the Rahatgarh road. It is also called Phular as there is a temple of Mahadeo, locally called Phulnath. During the great Uprising on 15 December,1857 Bhapel was the site of an engagement between a British detachment from Sagar and the mutineers. An annual religious fair is held on the Purnima Day after Diwali which is attended by about 3,000 persons.

Bilhera, Tehsil Sagar

Bilhera, Tehsil Sagar - A village situated in 23 degree 35' N and 78 degree 40' E is 17 miles South of Sagar. It was founded in about 1659 A.D. by a Rajput chief called Pargal Shah, brother of Udan shah, the founder of Sagar who built the small fort which still stands. Later it was assigned, alongwith other villages as a grant for the maintenance of the old Dangi rulers of Sagar.

Bina, Tehsil Sagar

Bina, Tehsil Khurai - A town situated in 24 degree 10' N and 78 degree 10' E at an elevation of 1352 feet is an important Railway Junction on the Central Railway 47 miles from Sagar by Rail and adjoining the town of Etawa. The Station having been named after the Bina River to avoid confusion with another Etawa in Uttar Pradesh. It is connected with Katni Junction on the Central Railway by a branch line through Sagar and Damoh.

Binaika, Tehsil Banda

Binaika, Tehsil Banda - A large village in 24 degree 05 N and 78 degree 50' E is 24 miles north of Sagar. It is supposed to have been populated in the 15th Century and was held by the Gond rulers of Garh Mandla from whom it was taken by Raja Beer Singh Deo of Orchha and was ceded to the Marathas in 1730 by Chhatrasal Later the Maratha Governer Vinayakrao built a fort here. In 1842 it was plundered by the Bundela Thakur from Narhut and Chandrapur and there after in 1857 was held by the Raja of Shahgarh on the 18th July 1857 a company of soldiers with two European Officers sent from Sagar to Binaika on the 21th the insurgents, having been reinforce from Shahgarh attacked this detachment with a gun and in the action that followed Major Legard was defeated and had to return to Sagar.

Deori, Tehsil Rehli

Deori, Tehsil Rehli - A municipal town situated in 23 degree 05' N and 78 Degree 40' E at an elevation of 1409 feet on the Sukhchain river is 40 miles from Sagar on the Narsinghpur road. It was formerly called Ramgarh or Ujargarh but following the erection of a temple it was renamed as Deori meaning the " abode of God".The town is believed to have been founded about 400 years ago by a chandel Raja to whom local tradition ascribes the present fort.In the kingdom of Garh Mandla the Garh of Deori contained 750 mouzas. Later it became the capital of a tract known as Panch Mahal comprising Naharmau,Gourjhamer Chawarpatha and Tendukheda and was in possession of Durga Singh,the Gond ruler of Gourjhamer who is known to have rebuilt the fort.In 1767 Deori and the attached tract of Panchmahal were given rent free by the Peshwa to Dhondu Dattatreya a deshastha Maratha Brahman.

Dhamoni, Tehsil Banda

Dhamoni, Tehsil Banda - A village situated 24 degree 10' N and 78 degree 45 E, 29 miles North of Sagar on the Jhansi road has a rich historical past.Though know deserted it was a place of sufficient importance to be a Garh in the Kingdom of Garh Mandla and has 750 mouzas. Dhamoni is undoubtedly a place of archaeological interest on account of old ruins. The fortress stands on an eminence and has a triangular ground plan enclosing a space of 52 acres.

Gadpahra, Tehsil Sagar

It is also called old Sagar,was the capital of the Dangi Kingdom. It is situated six miles north of Sagar on Jhansi road. Gadphara still has some historical remains. The fort build on a low range of hills, is approached by a steep road leading to bastion, a rough gateway and a white washed temple on a platform. There are remains of a summer residence called a Shish Mahal or Glass palace of the Dangi Rular. It is a square building very much like a Muslim tomb consisting of two stores, each room having a veranda all around. The glassed tiles of various colors are fixed alternatively in the panel of the battlement and in the ribbing of the domes. It is attributed to Raja Jaisingh who is supposed to have live about 200 years ago. In the neighbour hood is a tomb which is treated as an object of worship.Below the hill toward the north is small lake called Motital.

Eran, Tehsil Khurai

An ancient site lying at the junction of Bina and Reuta rivers, 6 miles from Bamora station on the central railways. By its natural situation, Eran is at the gate of Bundelkhand on one side and Malwa at the other. The name is derived from the abundant growth of ERAKA, a sort of grass of emollient and diligent properties. The village of Eran has a most interesting collection of archaeological relics. There is a fort in rulings attributed to the Dangis, who formerly dominated over this region. The site had a number of Vishnu shrines but nothing now remains except some of the lower courses of masonry, four standing columns with there architrave and some beams and part of door ways. The Principal statue is a colossal Varaha about 10 feet high. The excavation conducted by the Department of Archeaology of the University of Sagar have yielded relics similar to those found at Maheshwar and Tripuri showing that Eran formed the Northern most limit of the Chalcolithic culture in Madhya Pradesh.

Rangir, Tehsil Rehli

A village situated 10 miles from Rehli and 21 miles from Sagar on Sagar Rehli Road on the bank of the Dahar river. It was site of an engagement between Chatrasak Bundela and Khaliq, the Mugal Fauzdar of Damoni. On the adjoining Hill stands a temple of Harsiddi Devi in whose honour fairs are held in the months of Asvina and Chaitra. The Chaitra fair is an important one and large number of people visit the temple. The image of the goddess is held in great veneration and people believe that she changes her form thrice every day , as a child at dawn, a young girl at mid day and a old women in the evening. A government rest house of forest department is located here.

Tikamgarh district

Tikamgarh district lies in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. It forms the north-western part of Sagar district. It lies on the Bundelkhand Plateau between the Jamni, a tributary of Betwa and Dhasan rivers. It extends between the latitude 24 degree 26 minute and 25 degree 34 minute N and between 78 degree 26 minute and 79 degree 21 minute Longitudes. The shape of district is triangular. The northern margin is very irregular. The maximum length of the district is about 119 Km from north to south and width about 80 Km. Tikamgarh District is bounded by Chhatarpur district to east, Lalitpur district Uttar Pradesh to west, Jhansi to north and Sagar to south. The western and eastern boundaries are formed by two big rivers. The total geographical area of Tikamgarh district is 5048.00 sq. km and the total population is 12,02,998 ( 2001 Census). Tikamgarh district is divided into six tehsils grouped into three sub divisions of Tikamgarh, Niwari and Jatara. The Tikamgarh sub division comprises Tikamgarh and Baldeogarh tehsils, Niwari and Prithvipur tehsil form Niwari sub division whereas Jatara sub division comprises of Jatara and Palera Tehsil. There are six development blocks namely Tikamgarh, Jatara, Baldeogarh, Palera, Niwari and Prithvipur. The names of Police Stations located in the district are Tikamgarh, Digora, Lidhoura, Palera, Kudila, Baldeogarh, Khargapur, Orchha, Mohangarh, Niwari, Jatara, Budera, Jeron, Badagaon, Teharka, Sendri, Simra, and Prithvipur. The district lies in the Ganga Drainage system. The Betwa flows along its north-western boundary. The Dhasan, one of its right bank tributaries and a big stream itself, mark the eastern boundary of the district. Both these rivers flows towards the northeast. The natural drainage of the district is diverted in the opposite directions into these rivers, the Dhasan sharing about 75 percent of the waters of the district. The tributaries of the Betwa flowing in the Tikamgarh district are Jamni, Bagri and Barua. There are one head Post Office, 19 Sub-post Offices and 164 Branch Offices in the District. In the 2001 Census the literacy rate was 55.80 percent. Tikamgarh is the headquarter town of the district and tehsil of the same name. The earlier name of the town was 'Tehri' (i..e. a triangle) consisting of three hamlets, forming a rough triangle. In the Tikamgarh town there is muhalla still known as 'Purani Tehri' . Before independence, it was the headquarter town of the erstwhile Orchha State. The name of 'Tehri' was changed to Tikamgarh in 1887, in the honour of Lord Krishna, as Tikam is one of the name of Lord Krishna.

Agriculture and Irrigation

Agriculture and related pursuits have always been the predominant occupation of the mainly rural area. The main crops of the district are Jowar, Wheat, Paddy, Urad and Till. Soyabean amongst the oilseeds while Sugarcane also is grown to a certain extent. Thus Cropwise, it can be said that both cropping seasons, the Kharif and Rabi are important in the district. Besides Gram, Urad and Moong are among other important pulses of the district and are grown generally in Kharif. Another pulse, letil or masur are also grown to a significant extent while , tur came fourth after Urad, Masur, and moong-moth in respect of area. The oilseed crops grown in the district may be mentioned rape and mustered groundnut and linseed while later by eighties, Soyabean cultivation gained much in popularity. Irrigation in this district mostly dependent mostly on the wells and old but strongly built tanks which, besides irrigating the crops enhanced the beauty of the landscape and also raised the level of sub-soil water. They thereby, helped to provide sufficient underground water. Canals, as a source, have appeared on the district irrigation scene since the mid-fifties and the new projects have laid great stress on the development.

Industries

No Industry of any significance seems to have been at work in the Tikamgarh during the past. However, minor village industries of a rudimentary nature which are the inherent part of rural economy existed in this district too. These consisted of wood work units, handlooms weaving, pottery, brick-making, utensil-making, and gold, silver and lac ornaments-making. They are mainly run by the village artisans class who inherited the skill of their craft.

How to reach

The district headquarter is not connected by the railway. The passenger buses ply regularly on almost all the main roads of the district. All the towns and big villages are directly connected by the bus transport. The passenger buses are run by both MPSRTC and private bus owners.

By train

District headquarter is not connected by the railway. The broad gauge lines of Jhansi-Manikpur and Jhansi-Bina section traverse the northern and western margin of the district for about 41 Km.

By Air

There is no facility for air transport in the district. The nearest airport are those at Gwalior and Khajuraho, which are linked by air with Delhi, Bhopal, Indore and Bombay.

Climate

The Climate of Tikamgarh district is monsoon type. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from December to February followed by the hot season, from March to about the middle of June. The period from about mid-June to the end of September is the rainy season. The average rainfall of the district is 40 inch. It varies from 33 inch to 54 inch, in different parts of the district. It is seen that rainfall in the district in general increases from northwest to southwest. Parts of the Niwari tehsil and Mohangarh of Jatara tehsil also come in the low rainfall zone. About 90 percent of the annual rainfall in the district is received during the southwest monsoon season - June to September, July being the rainiest month. The months of October and November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. There is no meteorological observation in the district. The description which follows is based on the records of the observations in the neighbouring districts which have similar climate. After February temperature rise progressively. May is generally the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature at about 43 degree celcilus and low 29 degree celcicus. On individual day temperature may rise upto about 47 degree Celcious. The relative humidity is high during the monsoon season, it being generally above 70 percent. In the rest of the year the air is comparatively dry. The driest part of the year is summer season when the relative humidity is less than 20 percent the afternoons.

Population

As per the census of 2001 the population of the district is 12,02,998 (6,37,913 males and 5,65,085 females) spread over an area of 5,048.00 sq. km. The population of the district forms only 1.99 percent of the state population. The density of the population is 238 persons per sq. km. And sex ratio 886. The rural-urban proportion is 82.32:17.68. The ratio of females per thousand males in the district was 877 in the year 1971. It was nearly same 876 in the rural areas best remarkably higher in the Urban areas 898. According to the Census 2001, the density of population in the district is 238 persons. The rural areas it recorded to 213 persons per sq. Km. Where as in the urban areas the density is 547 persons per sq. km. Nearly 17.68 percent of the population lived in its 13 towns and rest 82.32 in the rural areas. The rural area extending over 4,659.19 sq. Km. Contained 963 villages and sustained population of 9,90,265 while Urban area has population of 2,12,733. The table given below shows the rural-urban composition of the population of the district tehsil wise.

Places of Interest

Ahar

A Village of Baldeogarh tehsil, Ahar lies on the side of Tikamgarh-Chhattarpur road at a distance of 25 km away from the district headquarter. Regular buses are available to reach this place. It is evidently an old village said to have been populated by Jamalpur Ahars, which was once an important Jain Centre. Several ruins, Old images and temples are located here. The Village contain three old Jain temples one of these temple have an image of Shantinath, having height 20 feet. A tank of Chadella days with a fine dam stands here.

Achroo Mata

A Village situated about 3 km west of Madia Village on Tikamgarh-Niwari road in the Prithvipur tehsil. The village stands on a hill. There is a well known temple of the Goddess of Achroo Mata. It is famous for a kund which is always filled with water and never dried irrespective of number of users. Every year on the occasion of Nav-Durga festival falling in the month of March-April (Chaitra), a fair is organised under the supervision of Gram Panchyat.

Baldeogarh

The headquarters town of the Baldeogarh is a tehsil of the same name. It is situated on the Tikamgarh-Chhattarpur road at distance of 26 km from Tikamgarh. The massive rock fort standing above the beautiful tank Gwal-Sagar presents a very pleasing sight. The fort is a very fine specimen of its class and one of the most picturesque in the region. A big old Gun is still placed in this fort. The town is known for its betel-leaf cultivation. The importance of town also lies in its famous temple of ' Vindhya Vasini Devi'. An annual seven days Vindhyavasani fair is held here in the month of Chaitra and attended by about 10,000 persons.

Jatara

The headquarter town of the tehsil of the same name is situated on the Tikamgarh-Mau-Ranipur road at a distance of 40 km from Tikamgarh. The nearest railway station is Mau Ranipur (U.P.). It lies below the level of Madan Sagar Lake. The lake is long and broad. It retained by two dams of great length. These dams are built by the Chandella Chief Madan Varman(1129-67) after whom the lake is called Madan Sagar. The Canals of the lake flows through the heart of the town. The place is of considerable interest of containing many Muhammadan buildings, most, if not all the later Mughal style Shahjahan.

Kudar (Garh Kudar )

It is one of the famous village of Niwari tehsil situated at a distance of 22 km on the Niwari-Senderi road. Buses are available to reach this place. Its importance lies in its having been the first place seized by the Bundelas from the Khangars. Kundar remained the capital of the State until 1539 when it was shifted to Orchha. On the top of a small hill stands a fort built by Maharaja Birsingh Dev. The temple of local Goddess Maha Maya Gridh Vasni stands here. There is a large tank held on the temple Goddess, which is called 'Singh Sagar'. A weekly market held on every Monday.

Kundeshwar

A important village situated 5 km south of Tikamgarh town on the bank of the Jamdar river. This place is famous for kundadev Mahadev temple. It is believed that Shiv Linga has emerged from Kunda . In the south of it, there is beautiful picnic spot known as 'Barighar' and a beautiful waterfall known as 'Usha Water Fall'. The village possesses Achreological Museum and Vinobha Sansthan. Maharaja Birsingh deo established the Keshva Sahitya Sansthan which was partonized by Pandit Banarsidas Chaturvedi and Yaspal Jain during their stay at Kundeshwar. Three big Melas held at Kundeshwar annually. An important fair attended by 50,000 persons held in pouse/Magh (January) on the occasion of Sankranti. Second held on the occasion of Basant Panchimi and third held on the Kartik Ekadasshi in the month of October/November.

Madkhera

A small village situated on the northwest of Tikamgarh town at a distance of about 20 km. The importance of this place lies in its famous SUN Temple. It entrance is from the east. SUN idol is placed here. The other main object of interest of the village is a temple of Vindhya Vasani Devi on the top of hill.

Niwari

The headquarter town of the Niwari tehsil of the same name, is situated on the Tikamgarh-Jhansi road, at a distance of about 80 km to northwest of Tikamgarh. Niwari is the only tehsil town which is connected by the rail and lies on the Jhansi-Manikpur section of the Central railway. In former days a small fort was there but was demolished by the Marathas. It possesses a temple of Khedapati Hanumanji.

Orchha

A village of Prithvipor tehsil, Orchha is situated on the Betwa river at a distance of about 13 km from tehsil headquarter. It is 15 km from Jhansi(U.P.). Orchha is linked by the rail on Jhansi-Manikpur section of the Central railway. rchha was the capital town of the state. It was founded by Maharaja Rudra Pratap Singh in 1531 A.D. The name Orchha or Ondchha is traditionally derived from scoffing remark of a Rajput Chief who on visiting the site selected for capital town. On an island in the Betwa which has been surrounded by the battemented wall, and approached by a causeway over a fine bridge of fourteen arches, stands a huge palace fort mainly the work of Maharaja Bir Singh Dev. It consists of several connected buildings constructed at different times. The finest of these are the Raj Mandir and Jahagir Mahal. Orchha is famous religious centre of Hindus. It is known for its religious and cultural heritage. The following places are famous in the town :

- Ram Raja Temple
- Jahagir Mahal
- Chaturbhuj Temple
- Laxmi Temple
- Phool Bagshish Mahal
- Kanchana Ghat
- Chandra Shekhar Azad Memorial
- Savan Bhadon
- Hardol ki Samadhi
- Badi Chhatrian
- Rai Praveen Mahal
- Keshav Bhawan

Palera

An important municipal town of Tikamgarh-Nowgaon road, at a distance of about 27 Km from Jatara. Buses are available to reach this place. The town was originally given to Dharaman God, son of Bhagwan Rao, first chief of Datia. An annual fair held on the occasion of Ramnavmi.

Papora

It is an old village about 5 km southeast of Tikamgarh town. It is famous Jain pilgrimage centre which attracts large number of Jain devotees. The village contains about 80 old Jain temples. Few Jain temples are under construction. The famous Jain temples of twenty four Tirthakars is the main attraction of devotees. An important Jain fair, attended by 10,000 persons, held in the month of Kartika sudi Purnima. It is managed by the trust.

Prithvipur

The headquarter town of tehsil Prithvipur. The name of the town derived from Prithvi Singh . Near the town lies Radha Sagar Tank. The Important temples of the town are Somnath temple, Ramjanki temple and Atan ke Hanumanji. The town posses a fort.






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