It is the oldest city in Punjab situated at a distance of about 84 kms southeast of Amritsar on the G.T road going to Calcutta. Jalandhar is India's foremost producer of sports goods. Its steel and iron re-rolling mills, rubber goods, electric goods, automobile parts, and sewing machine factories and handloom products are also very famous. Today, it is a major rail and road junction and an army cantonment. This city has twelve kots and twelve gates. It is one of the biggest centres of the vernacular press in India, most of the vernacular papers, magazines in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu are published here. The renowned newspapers are Hind Samachar, Punjab Kesri, Jag Bani, Partap & Veer Partap, Ajit, Akali Patrika, Nawan Zamana and Milap. Jalandhar is famous for export of quality sports goods all over the world. It is a town of great antiquity which has become a highly industrialized center of commercial activity.
The monuments in and around the city include 800 years old Imam Nasir Mosque, Devi Talab Mandir and two century old Jama Masjid. Jalandhar is the 'sports city of India' as it has not only finest sport industry but also a large number of sportsmen. In fact, 12 of India's greatest hockey players have come from a single village, Sansarpur, in Jalandhar city. Jalandhar has very alive atmosphere, something that is typical to the whole of Punjab. Initially, a college for women viz. Kanya Maha Vidyalaya was established in March 1921. Now there are large number of colleges, polytechnics, Academic and Ayurvedic colleges and also a number of colleges for women such as Hansraj Mahila Vidyalya, Kanya Maha vidyalya, Lyalpur Khalsa College and S.D. College. There is also a college for Teacher Training and a college of Sports. The railway line from Beas to Jalandhar was opened in 1869 and was completed upto Phillour by the next year. The Doab was linked to the rest of the punjab by the railway bridges, constructed over the Beas in 1869 and over the Sutlej in 1870.
Jalandhar ranks second in India in the rate of urbanisation and has the highest density of population at 598 persons per square km, as per the 1991 census. The reason for this is growing industrialisation. Industrial production of sports goods began on a small scale during the late forties. Over the years, the sports goods industry has grown at an impressive rate and of late Indian sports goods are also exported to different countries.
Most of India's sports goods are exported to the United Kingdom, The United States of America, Germany, France and Australia. Rough estimates suggest that today Jalandhar has more than one hundred major industries and about 20,000 small-scale industries with a most conservative estimate of an annual turnover of approximately Rs 450 crores The industry is mainly concentrated in Jalandhar and Meerut. The Indian sports goods industry manufactures 318 items. The Indian sports goods industry is a highly labour intensive industry which provides employment to the weaker sections of society and also employs a large number of women. The sports goods industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth over the past five decades and now occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and export.
Industry Jalandhar has the nucleus of sports goods industry in Punjab and has about 90% of the total sports goods units of the State. The product manufactured relates to all traditional products like foot-ball,cricket bats, hockey and cricket balls, hockey sticks, tennis badminton and squash rackets, balls, soft leather goods, shuttle cocks etc. This industry being labour intensive despite inadequate capital and technology, has reached a stage where it is reckoned as a major cottage industry providing direct employment to about 10000 workers.
Jalandhar is known for the manufacturing of Hand Tools like Spanner set, screw driver, nose pliers etc. 50 units are engaged in the manufacturing of hand tools giving employment to 8000 people.
Jalandhar is known for the manufacturing of good quality of auto parts.There are 300 units engaged in the manufacturing of auto parts providing employment to 4500 people. Several units are supplying auto parts to the orginal manufacturers of automobiles. There is export of Rs. 213.53 lacs of auto parts from Jalandhar during the year 1991-92.
Jalandhar is known for the manufacturing of rubber goods items like V-shape chappals,V-Belts, Scooter/Cycle tyres and rubber rolls. There are 625 units giving employment to 6500 persons. There is export of Rs.682.62 lacs from Jalandhar.
Surgical Instruments units are labour intensive units. There are 275 units in Jalandhar providing employment to 2500 persons. Tanning Industry Jalandhar is known for manufacture of shoes and a number of allied units. At present, there are a large number of tanning units providing employment to a major section of the scheduled caste and other weaker sections.
The spoken language in Jalandhar is Punjabi being the mother tongue of Punjabi people. The Jalandhar falls in Doaba region, comprising the districts Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala. Doaba region is sided by the rivers Beas and Sutlej. The dilect of this region is called Doabi by the linguistics. People give stress on 'B' in place of V. But with the spread of communication means the difference is eliminating very fast.
Since, the Jalandhar city is the house of printing press, the writers flocked to Jalandhar from all over the Punjab and many of them settled here and wrote great books. These writers wrote about the deep agonies of partition of 1947. The cruelties done during those times, the problems of migrants from Pakistan, the short stories novels, plays and poems deal with the subject of human crisis created with the partition. These books or some slections from these books were later on prescribed for school and college syllabuses.This gave inspiration to many young writers.The writers write Punjabi in Gurmukhi script. Kartar Singh Duggal a great writer of Punjabi literature brought All India Radio to Jalandhar.
The fairs are a living symbol of our cultural life. The gay and vivacious Punjabis are very fond of fair or a festival. People of all communities come to participate in these fairs from far flung areas.The most notable event in Jalandhar is the annual national Harballabh Fair :-
The famous Harballabh Sangeet Mela is held in the memory of the saint-musician, Swami Harballabh. It is organised at Devi Talab near the samadhi of the saint from 27 December to 30 December every year. Prominent exponents of classical music, both vocal and instrumental, from all over the country gathers to provide a rare feast of music for the connoisseur. Swami Harballabh came from a rich family of village Bajwara of district Hoshiarpur. He renounced the world and became a disciple of Swami Tulja Gir who was initiated him into the art of music. In 1956, a regular Sangeet Academy under the aegis of the Harbhallabh Sangeet Mahasabha was formed. The object of the Academy is to setup a centre in the Punjab for teaching and research in classical music. A syllabus has already been formed and the teaching institution has been open with the objective of holding their own examination for award of diplomas and degrees.The people come from distant place to enjoy Indian classical music. Even Mahatma Gandhi was attracted to the festival in 1929. Admission to the samelan is free as also board and lodging during the day of the fair. Hardly was there a classical singer of repute who did not visit the fair.For more details about Harballabh Sangeet Sammelan visit site www.harballabh.org
The fair of Baba Sodal is associated with Sodal, a small boy who came to be respected as a baby-God. The fair is held to commemorate his death anniversary at his smadh. The fair is held once a year in the month of Bhadon around mid-September. The fair lasts for one day./ in the early hours of the morning. The main place of worship is the smadh of Baba Sodal. In side the smadh, there is a painted portrait of Baba Sodal kept decorated with garlands and rosaries and is looked after by a separate priest. There is a pucca tank called 'Baba Sodal-Da-Sarowar'. The offering at the smadh are distributed among the pilgrims and sprinkle a few drops on their body. Some have a dip in the tank. Pilgrims of all religions come to fair from different parts of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. Among the pilgrims, females preponderate who seek blessing for children and general well-being of their families.
The legend goes that Sodal was born in a family of Chadha clan of Khatri caste in Jalandhar City. It is said that one day the mother of Baba Sodal went to nearby pond to wash clothes. Despite her repeatedly asking to him to go back, he followed her. The mother lost temper and shouted at him, " Have you come here to die? Go and drown yourself in the pound." It is said that Sodal asked her three times to repeater words which she did. Sodal then plunged into the water never to appear again. According to another version, he simply fell dead on the spot ; according to still another version he transformed himself into a snake and bored himself into the earth.
|Area (square km)||3401|
|Population (census 1991)||985301|
|Tehsils||Bathinda, Rampura Phul, Talwandi Sabo Sub-Tehsils Maur, Nathana,Bhagta Bahika, Sangat|
|Places of Interest|
|Takht Sri Damdama Sahib Or Talwandi Sabo|
|Mazaar Of Peer Haji Rattan|
|The Bathinda Fort|