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South Tripura District

South Tripura District is situated approximately between East longitude 91 degrees 18 minutes and 91 degrees 59 minutes and between North lattitude 22 degres 56 minutes and 23 degrees 45 minutes. The South Tripura District is bounded on the North by Dhalai district and West Tripura District, while on the other sides by international border with Bangladesh. The total geographical area of South Tripura District is 2624 Sq.km which is about 25% of the total state area.

Hill Ranges


There are 3(three) principal hill ranges in South Tripura District. The South Baramura and Deotamura hill ranges are completely in South District while a part of Atharamura hill range also comes in the District. Deotamura is the principal hill range of South Tripura District having a length of 85 Km. and forms the boundary between Amarpur and Udaipur SubDivision.

Rivers

The principal rivers flowing through the district are, Gumti, Muhuri and Feni. The river Gumti originates from the range connecting the Longtharai and Atharamura. At its source, two rivulates, namely, Kalyansing and Malyansing meet, thereafter it takes the name of Raimacherra till it meets the Sharmacherra. Later it assumes the name Gumti. The River Gumti which is about 135 km. Long runs across the sub-divisions Gandacherra, now under Dhalai District, Amarpur and Udaipur under South Tripura District and Sonamura Sub-Division of West Tripura District. The river Muhuri has its source in the Deotamura range. It is more than 64 km. long and has a catchment area of 1014 sq.km. and it flows westwards through hillocks and plains of Belonia sub-division till it enters Bangladesh.

At the source of river Feni, there are three streams known as the Asslang, the Rangafeni and Taindung, of which the Asslang is the principal channel. The river Feni forms the natural boundary between the South Tripura District and Bangladesh.

Socio-Cultural Setup

About 37.5% of the population in South Tripura Disrtrict is scheduled tribe and 17.16% of the population is scheduled caste. Major tribes in the district are: Tripuri, Jamatia, Reang, Chakma and Halam. The tribals as well as the non-tribals residing in the District have a socio-cultural similarity with the tribals and non-tribals of Bangladesh. Language spoken by majority of the population is Bengali while the tribals mainly speak Kakborak.

Economic Activities

Agriculture is the main occupation. However, only 31.61% of the land in the district is cultivable. The holdings are small, and agriculture is mainly rainfed and at subsistence level. The State Government has set before itself a target of attaining self-sufficiency in food production by 2010 A.D. As a result of this, a number of activities are undertaken these days to bring more land under cultivation, make them irrigable and increase the productivity. A large population however is daily labourer, which depends on the employment generation schemes of the Government. As a result of weak economic base and lack of industrial development and entrepreneurship, dependency on the Government is very high.

An analysis of occupational structure in the District shows that about 12.6% are cultivators, 8-9% are agricultural labourers and 1.61% are dependent on trade and commerce. The non-working population is about 68% which is an indication of the weak economic base and under-development. About 72% of the rural population are living below poverty line.

Paddy is the main food crop grown. Potato, sugarcane, mesta, jute, mustard, etc. are some other crops grown in the district. Tea, coffee, rubber, jackfruit, banana, mango, pineapple, etc. are the major plantation crops.

Arts And Crafts

Major arts & crafts in the district are as below:
  1. Cane & Bamboo
  2. Weaving on both indigenous and modern handlooms.
  3. Carpentry for decorative articles and furnitures.
  4. Clay modelling
  5. Pottery
  6. Blacksmith
  7. Goldsmith
  8. Tailoring / Embroidery
  9. Decorative paper materials

Climate

The climate of the District is mostly warm and is characterized by a humid summer and a dry cool winter with plenty of rains during July to October. Rainfall is received from the South -West Monsoon, which normally breaks in the month of May. Hailstorm generally occurs during the month of April & May, occasionally causing damage to the field crops. Autumn and Spring are of very short duration. Average annual rainfall in the district is about 2000 mm and the temperature varies between a maximum of 35.23° and a minimum of 7.43° Celsius. The variation in temperature is much lower during the rains than during any other season.

Communication

Udaipur is connected with Agartala, the state capital, by road and is about 52 Km from Agartala. The state capital is connected by Indian Airlines services with Calcutta and Guwahati. The nearest railway station is Kumarghat which is about 190 Km from the district headquarter. Within the district, there are regular bus services connecting the sub-divisional towns. The district headquarter, all sub-divisional headquarters and 10 out 11 blocks headquarters are on the telecommunication network.

South Tripura District at a glance :
District total area 2624.35 Sq. KM
Latitude 22 56 to 24 32
Longitude 91 59 to 92 22
Total Forest Land 1251.93 Sq. KM
Population (As Per 2001 Census )
Total 7,95,536
Male 4,14,908
Female 3,80,628
SC 3,20,798
SC 1,40,704
Others 3,34,034
Illiterate 93,894
BPL families 1,06,453
Literacy
Total 460710
Male 267269 (64.41%)
Female 193441 (50.82%)
Occupational Status
Total no of families in the district 1,64,161
Occupation (Number)
Agricultural labourer 49,288
Non-agri labourer 41,725
Cultivators 48,563
Artisans (Weavers,Porter etc.) 4,126
Household Industries 3,026
Business 6,870
Service in Government and Private Offices/Institutions 14,063
Others 6,811
Below the Proverty Line 72% of the total rural population
Agriculture
Gross area under Cultivation 133817.63 H
Net area under Cultivation 82962.76 H
Jhum cultivation area 3207 H
Total cultivator family 95751
Total Jhumia family 13948
Cropping intensity 161%
Number of Agriculture sector 20
Number of Village Level Worker centre 266
Number of Main Seed store 6
Number of sub seed store 103
Number of regulated market 6
Number of Agri farm 8
Number of Orchard 22
Animal Resource Development
Artificial Insemination Centre 3
District Hospital 1
Veterinary Hospital 4
Dispensary 16
Stockman Sub Centre 22
Veterinary First aid Centre 64
Composite livestock farm 1
District poultry farm 1
Disease investigation laboratory 1
District veterinary medicine store 1
Veterinary mobile unit 1
Fisheries
Number of Pisciculturist 27157
Number. of Fisherman 22598
Number of Fisherman Family 6911
Water Area (Govt.) 179.76 H.
Water Area (Co-Operative) 116.77 H
Water Area (Private Sector) 3606.95 H.
Water Area (Capture Area) 859.10 H.
Total 4762.58 H.
Mini barrage 894.47 H.
Pond/Tank 2876.01 H
Reservoir 5.72 H
River/Riverlets 853.38 H
Production of Fish
Government Sector 135.047 MT
Co-operative 143.95 MT
Private 5293.26 MT
Captured Area 198.98 MT
Total 5771.237 MT
Production of Fish seeds
  a) Government Sector 36.35 Lakhs
  b) Co-operative 25.25 Lakhs
  c) Private 527.37
Total 588.97 Lakhs
Fallow Land 584.12 H
Area available for creation of new water area 1115.40 H
Revenue Collection Rs.18,21,497/-
Health
District Hospital 1
Sub-Divisional Hosiptal 3
Rural Hospital 3
Primary Health Centre 17
Sub Centre (Health) 154
Hoemoeopathy Dispensary 19
Ayurvedic Dispensary 10
Manpower available
Doctor 96
MPS (male) 31
MPS (female) 8
MPW (male) 118
MPW (female) 159
MSS 305
CHG 327
Family Planning
Percentage of current user of family planning method 77%
Birth order (3 and above) 29%
Infant mortility rate 45/1000 Live Birth
Complete immunisation 60% and above
Sex ratio 949 : 1000
Schools and Colleges
Number of colleges 4
Number of H.S. school 58
Number of High School 102
Number of Senior Basic School 125
Number of J.B. School 272
Number of J.B. School (ADC) 368
Number of English Medium School 4
Number of Navodaya Vidyalaya 1
Number of Basic Training College 1
Number of Private H.S. School 3
Number of Private High School 1
Number of Teachers Male Female
Higher Seceondary. School 1561 404
Higher Seceondary School (Private) 115 19
High School 1459 357
High School(Private) 10 0
Senior Basic School 1354 377
Junior Basic School 1155 293
Junior Basic School (ADC) 1103 130
Power
Total power production 9 MW
Peak hour demand 24 MW
Average supply 12 MW
Number of consumers
Domestic 31416
Commercial 5860
Industry 652
Public health (pump house) 170
Shallow tube well 16
Minor irrigation (pump house) 368
Tea and Rubber garden 2
Kutir joyti 9809
Bulk category 23
Public lighting/ street light 41
Number of hamlets (para) connected with power 1277
Number of hamlets (para) not connected with power 1160
Total revenue collection Rs. 6.92 Crore
Roads and Dridges
Metalled (Black top) Road 746.9 KM
Brick soled road 3771.83 KM
Katcha road 4971.83 KM
Vehicles can ply 1626.14 KM
Fit only for pedestrains 4310
SPT Bridges 156
Other Temporary Bridges 557

Places of Interest

Tripura Sundari Temple

Bhuvaneswari Temple

Shiv Bari and Tin Mandir

Debatamura

Pillak

Tirthamukh

Trishna Wild Life Sanctury

Deer Park and Patichari

Tripura Sundari Temple

The temple is situated about 3 Km away from Udaipur town on the Agartala- Sabroom road. The temple was constructed in the year 1501 A.D. during the period of Maharaja Dhanyamanikya. It is one of the 51 Maha Pithasthans of India. As per mythological saying, toe of the right foot of Mata Sati fell at this place. It is one of the most important tourist spots of the State where hundreds of pilgrims visit every day. During Dewali, a big dewali mela is organised in the Mata Tripura Sundari Temple premises where lakhs of people offer puja. According to Rajmala, this temple was constructed for establishing the idol of Lord Bishnu. But one night Maha Maya came into the dreams of Maharaja Dhanyamanikya and asked him to shift her idol from Chittagong, now in Bangladesh, to this place and accordingly Mata Tripura Sundari was established in this temple. The temple administration is run in the name of Revenue Department of the State.

Significance

This is one of the FIFTY ONE MAHA PITHASTHANS of India. Here the right foot of SATI MATA fell as a result of dissection of Sati's dead body by the SUDARSHAN CHAKRA of Lord Vishnu.

Main Festival

Dewali Puja is the main annual festival when lakhs of pilgrims assemble here from all over the State and outside as well.

Holy Tank

Very close to the temple, there is a big tank commonly called "KALYAN SAGAR" which was excavated by Maharaja Kalyan Manikya. Various types of big fish and tortoise live in this tank and, much to their delight, the pilgrims can easily feed these creatures.

Bhuvaneswari Temple

The temple is situated on the northern bank of Gumati. The temple was built in between 1667 to 1676 A.D., during the reign of Maharaja Govinda Manikya. The temple is constructed on a 3 feet high paved terrace. The roof features the typical four-chaala pattern with stupa like crowns on the vestibule and core chambers. The stupa on core chamber is embellished with floral designs. The historical significance of this temple is that it is the back-drop of the famous novel "Rajarshi" and the drama "Bisarjan" composed by Rabindranath Tagore.

Shib Bari

The temple is situated at Udaipur town. According to the Pithamala, it is the abode of "Tripuresh Bhairav". The phallic symbol of Shiva inside the temple is still being worshipped. The temple was constructed by Maharaja Dhanya Manikya. The door of the temple faces the west. Though the Tripureswari temple was first to come up, both were contemporary. The temple was repaired in 1651 A.D. by Maharaja Kalyan Manikya. The present temple was renovated by Maharaja Radha Kishore Manikya.

Tin Mandir

This temple is situated by the east bank of Jagannath Dighi. Detailed information about the temple is not available, though it seems the temple had stone-inscriptions. Perhaps it was built some time in the last quarter of the 17th century.

Debatamura

Debtamura is approximately 35 KM away from Udaipur, it is situated in Amarpur Sub-Division. Debtamura means God's peak and it is a fall range between Udaipur and Amarpur Sub-Division running along the Gumti river. The place is famous for images of Lord Shiv, Goddess Durga and other Goddesses. These beautiful images are carved with a lot of dexterity on the rocky faces of Debtamura which is steep as 90 degrees. The hill ranges are covered with thick jungles and one can reach this abode of gods only after trekking through these jungles.

Pillak

The place is about 55 Kms away from Udaipur. It is situated in Belonia Sub-Division. Pillak has become important from the historical point of view as many old stone images have been found in this area. The mound still found at Pillak, if excavated, may unearth many more images to help reconstruct the religion of this ancient place.

Tirthamukh

It is situated about 62 Km. away from the district head quarter. The place is famous for its serene beauty and tranquillity. The famous Dumbur Hydel Project is situated here which is the main source of power for South Tripura District. Two rivers Raima and Sarma which originate in the present Dhalai district merge here and the famous GUMTI river originates from this Dumbur reservoir at Theerthamukh. The Dumbur Reservoir is also famous for attracting a large number of birds from different parts of the world. Every year, on the day of Pous Sankranti, the famous Thirthamukh Mela is organised where a large number of people from all over the state and neighbouring states visit. A large number of devotees visit the mela and take dip in the holy water of river Gumti and also do "Pind dan" rituals for the peace of souls of their forefathers. It has got special significance among the tribals. Elaborate arrangements by the various departments of State Government and district administration are made for organising the mela.

Trishna Wild Life Sanctuary

It is situated approximately 60 Km away from the district headquarter along Bangladesh border and in the western part of Belonia Sub-Division. It is famous for dwelling place of Bison and migrating birds from Siberia and other places in winter.

Deer Park and Patichari

It is situated at Patichari on the Udaipur-Sabroom main road and is famous for the abode of spotted deer (Chital) and Barking deer (Khatta Harin).