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Uttar Pradesh


Uttar Pradesh is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the densely populated Gangetic plain. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three regions by different geographical conditions: Himalayan region - North, the Gangetic plains - Middle, and the Vindhyan hills and plateau - South. The state comprises the regions of Rohilkhand in the northwest, The Doab, or Brij (Braj) (Braj-bhoomi) in the southwest, Awadh (Oudh) (the historic country of Koshal) in the centre, the northern parts of Bagelkhand & Bundelkhand in the south, and the south-western part of the Bhojpur country, commonly called Purvanchal ("Eastern Province"), in the east. It shares an international border with Nepal and Tibet in northeast, by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh in northwest, by Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi in West and by the state of Madhya Pradesh in south and the state of Bihar in southeast. With nearly 176 million inhabitants, Uttar Pradesh is not only the most populous state in India but also the most populous subnational entity in the world. Only five countries (the People's Republic of China, India itself, the USA, Indonesia and Brazil) have higher populations. It is also one of the most economically and socially backward states in India. On virtually every index of social development, whether literacy, infant mortality or unemployment, Uttar Pradesh ranks among the lowest in India; the situation is compounded by the fact that figures for females is invaribly much lower than for males on every parameter. In sheer magnitude Uttar Pradesh is half the size of France, thrice that of Portugal, and four times of Ireland. Seven Switzerland and ten Belgium's could easily fit in this mammoth state. A little bigger than England, Uttar Pradesh has one out of every 36 persons in the World living here. The travel time from Ghazipur to Ghaziabad or from Churk to Chamoli within U.P. will easily exceed a cruise across the oceans. Uttar Pradesh represents the heart of India. For the same reason it has been referred to as the Madhya Desh (Central Province) in mythological descriptions.


The climate varies from moderately temperate in the Himalayan region to tropical monsoon in the central plains and southern upland regions. In the plains, the average temperatures vary from 54.5 to 63.5 F (12.5 to 17.5 C) in January to 81.5 to 90.5 F (27.5 to 32.5 C) in May and June. The highest temperature recorded in the state was 121.8 F (49.9 C) at Gonda on May 8, 1958. Rainfall in the state ranges from 40-80 inches (1,000-2,000 millimeters) in the east to 24-40 inches in the west. About 90 percent of the rainfall occurs during the southwest monsoon, lasting from about June to September. With most of the rainfall concentrated during this four-month period, floods become a recurring problem and cause heavy damage to crops, life, and property, particularly in the eastern part of the state. Periodic failure of monsoons results in drought conditions and crop failure. In the Himalayan region, annual snowfall averaging 10 to 15 feet is common between December and March.


The languages of the different regions are distinct, and the language of the western parts, called (Khadiboli) is the basis for the official Hindi language, created during the late 19th century. The most commonly spoken language in urban areas is Urdu/Hindi. Regardless of the script used, the language of Lucknow is called Lucknowie Urdu. It is a pure form of literary Urdu used by most Urdu poets. Urdu is one of the two official languages of the state. Other languages are Koshali, Braj (which is more than two thousand years old), Koeli, Bagheli, Bundeli and Bhojpuri. The Bhojpuri ethnic homeland is divided between Nepal in the north, Bihar state in the east and Uttar Pradesh in the west.


The State of U.P. has made investments over the years in all sectors of education and has achieved some success. As a result, some progress in adult education has been made and the census of 2001 indicates a male literacy rate of 70.23 % and a female literacy rate of 42.98 %. At the level of higher education and technical education Uttar Pradesh has 16 general universities, famous among those are Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU), Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University and Aligarh Muslim University, one prestigeous Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), one Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow), one Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad), one National Institute of Technology (Allahabad) and large number polytechnics, engineering institutes and industrial training institutes.


The western region of the state is more advanced in terms of agriculture. Majority of the population depends upon farming as its main occupation. Wheat, rice, sugar cane, pulses, oil seeds and potatoes are its main products. Sugar cane is an important cash crop almost through out the state and sugar mills and other cane crushers who produce gur and Khandsari are common throughout the state. Uttar Pradesh is an important state in so far as horticulture is concerned. Apples and mangoes are produced in the state.


There are different types of minerals and several industries have came up based on the minerals. There are cement plants in the Mirzapur area in the Vindhya region, a bauxite based aluminium plant in the Banda area and copper in Pithora Garh, Almora Chamboli and Tehri Garhwal. In the hills a number of minerals are to be found, mainly non-metallic minerals which are used as industrial raw materials. Coal deposits are found in the Singrauli area. The industries include a large printing establishment units engaged in manufacturing of scales, locks, letter boxes, furniture, badges and belts, leather goods, scissors etc. Handloom, carpet, glass, electrical goods, electro plating, building material industries are also found in the city.

Mineral Resources

The state is poor in mineral resources. The only considerable deposits are of limestone in Mirzapur, Dehra Dun and Almora districts. These are being quarried and are used largely in cement manufacture. Dolomite occurs in small quantities in Bandal and Varanasi districts, gypsum in Tehri Garhwal, Nainital and Dehra Dun districts, andalusite in Mirzapur district, magnetite in Almora and Pithoragarh districts, pyrophyllite and diaspore in Jhansi and Hamirpur districts, phosphorite in the Musoorie area and bauxite in Karvi tehsil of Banda district and in southern part of Varanasi district. The occurrence of stibnite, a source of antimony has been reported from Chamoli district. At Singrauli in Mirzapur district coalfield is located.

Livestock and Fishery

Uttar Pradesh supports about 15% of the country's total livestock population. Of its livestock in 1961, 15% were cattle, 21% buffaloes, 13% goats and 8% other livestock. Between 1951 and 1956 there was an overall increase of 14% in the livestock population. There are nearly eight lakh hectares of water area, including lakes, tanks, rivers, canals and streams. The fishing area is over two lakh hectares and more than 175 varieties of fish, excluding the sornamental varieties are found. Among them are rohu, hilsa, mahseer, mangar, snow trout and mirror carp.

Places of Interest

From Tourism point of view U.P. is divided into four parts i.e.

Western UP

Hastinapur (Meerut), Vrindavana (Mathura), Mathura, Garhmukteshwara (Ghaziabad), Agra, Fathepur Sikri (Agra), Peeran Kaliyar (Sahranpur), Golagokarannath (Kheri), Sankissa, Kannauj, Kampil (Farrukhabad), Soron (Etah),Naimisharanya, Chakratirtha (Sitapur), Shukratal (Muzaffaranagar), Bithur (Kanpur), Lucknow, Deva Sharif (Barabanki).

Eastern UP

Gorakhnath Temple (Gorakhpur), Sarnath (Varanasi), Saidpur Bhitri (Ghazipur), Shringverpur (Allahabad), Kaushambi, Chunar, Vindhyachala (Mirzapur), Devipatan (Gonda), Magahar (Basti), Bhrigu Temple (Ballia), Shravasti, Ayodhya (Faizabad), Kushinagar, Chitrakut, Jaunpur etc

Budhist Circuit

This includes Sarnath, Piparhwa, Samhita, Shrawasti and Kaushambi.

Bundelkhand Region

This includes all the tourist spots of the Jhansi Division.
A part of Uttar Pradesh has been separated and formed into a new state Uttaranchal on November 9th 2000. The details given here are before the separation.

Divisions and districts

Uttar Pradesh state consists of 70 districts, which are grouped into 17 divisions.

Agra Division

Agra District
Aligarh District
Etah District
Firozabad District
Mainpuri District
Mahamaya Nagar District (Hathras District)
Mathura District

Allahabad Division

Allahabad District
Kaushambi District
Fatehpur District
Pratapgarh District

Azamgarh Division

Azamgarh District
Ballia District
Mau District

Bareilly Division

Bareilly District
Badaun District
Pilibhit District
Shahjahanpur District

Basti Division

Basti District
Siddharthnagar District
Sant Kabir Nagar District

Chitrakoot Division

Banda District
Chitrakoot District
Hamirpur District
Mahoba District

Devipatan Division

Gonda District
Bahraich District
Shravasti District
Balrampur District

Faizabad Division

Faizabad District
Ambedkar Nagar District
Barabanki District
Sultanpur District

Gorakhpur Division

Gorakhpur District
Kushinagar District (Padrauna District)
Devaria District
Maharajganj District

Jhansi Division

Jalaun District
Jhansi District
Lalitpur District

Kanpur Division

Kanpur Nagar District
Kanpur Dehat District (Akbarpur District)
Etawah District
Farrukhabad District
Kannauj District
Auraiya District

Lucknow Division

Lucknow District
Hardoi District
Lakhimpur Kheri District
Raebareli District
Sitapur District
Unnao District

Meerut Division

Meerut District
Bulandshahr District
Gautam Buddha Nagar District
Ghaziabad District
Bagpat District

Mirzapur Division

Mirzapur District
Sant Ravidas Nagar District (Bhadohi District)
Sonbhadra District

Moradabad Division

Moradabad District
Bijnor District
Rampur District
Jyotiba Phule Nagar District

Saharanpur Division

Saharanpur District
Muzaffarnagar District

Varanasi Division

Varanasi District
Chandauli District
Ghazipur District
Jaunpur District


Districts Area in Sq Km Population Headquarters
Agra 4,027 27,51,021 Agra
Aligarh 5,019 32,95,982 Aligarh
Etah 4,446 22,44,998 Etah
Firozabad 2,361 15,33,054 Firozabad
Mainpuri 2,760 13,16,746 Mainpuri
Mathura 3,811 19,31,186 Mathura
Azamgarh 4,234 31,53,885 Azamgarh
Mau 1,713 14,45,782 Mau
Kaushambi 2,015 11,57,402 Kaushambi
Pratapgarh 3,717 22,10,700 Pratapgarh
Allahabad 2,261 49,21,313 Allahabad
Chitrakoot 3,513 5,95,996 Chitrakootdham
Hathras 4,234 22,62,273 Hathras
Ballia 2,981 11,57,402 Ballia
Fatehpur 4,152 18,99,241 Fatehpur
Budaum 5,168 24,48,338 Budaum
Bareilly 4,120 28,34,616 Bareilly
Pilibhit 3,499 12,83,103 Pilibhit
Shajahanpur 4,575 19,87,395 Shajahanpur
Faizabad 4,511 29,78,484 Faizabad
Ambedkarnagar - - Akbarpur
Bahraich 6,877 27,63,750 Bahraich
Barabanki 4,402 24,23,136 Barabanki
Gonda 7,352 35,73,075 Gonda
Sultanpur 4,436 25,58,970 Sultanpur
Gorakhpur 3,325 30,66,002 Gorakhpur
Deoria 2,613 21,43,745 Deoria
Kushinagar 2,832 22,96,279 Padarauna
Maharajganj 2,948 16,76,378 Maharajganj
Banda 7,624 18,62,139 Banda
Hamirpur 4,098 8,98,326 Hamirpur
Jalaun 4,565 12,19,377 Orai
Lalitpur 5,039 7,52,043 Lalitpur
Mahoba 3,068 14,29,698 Mahoba
Jhansi 5,024 24,18,487 Jhansi
Kanpur (Urban) 1,065 21,38,317 Kanpur
Kanpur (Rural) 5,111 24,40,266 Akbarpur
Farrukhabad 4,274 21,24,655 Fatehgarh
Etawha 4,326 27,62,801 Etawah
Lucknow 2,528 27,47,082 Lucknow
Hardoi 5,986 24,19,234 Hardoi
Lakhimpur Kheri 7,860 23,22,810 Kheri
Rai Bareilly 4,609 28,57,009 Rai Bareli
Sitapur 5,743 22,00,397 Sitapur
Unnao 4,558 28,49,859 Unnao
Bulandshahar 4,352 34,47,912 Bulandshahar
Meerut 3,911 27,03,933 Meerut
Ghaziabad 2,590 1,46,514 Ghaziabad
Gautam Buddha Nagar 1,501 41,21,035 Noida
Moradabad 5,967 24,54,521 Moradabad
Bijnor 4,561 15,02,141 Bijnor
Rampur 2,367 13,29,554 Rampur
Jyotiba Phule Nagar 2,470 23,09,029 Amroha
Shaharanpur 3,689 11,24,488 Saharanpur
Hardwar 2,360 28,42,543 Hardwar
Muzaffarnagar 4,008 37,82,949 Muzaffarnagar
Varanasi 4,036 32,14,636 Varanasi
Jaunpur 4,038 12,74,839 Jaunpur
Chandauli 2,485 24,16,617 Chandauli
Ghaziapur 3,377 10,77,633 Ghazipur
Sant Ravidas Nagar 1,056 16,57,139 Bhadodhi
Mirzapur 4,522 10,75,041 Mirzapur
Sonbhadra 6,788 13,68,630 Robertsganj
Balrampur 3,457 9,23,377 Balrampur
Shravasti 2,186 17,07,685 Shravasti
Siddharth Nagar 3,495 2,00,451 Rudra Prayag
Baghpat 2,439 10,30,399 Baghpat
Kannauj 1,345 11,55,847 Kannauj
Orraiya 2,058 10,00,035 Orraiya
Sant Kabir Nagar 2,054 9,73,385 Khalibad

At a glance

State Capital LUCKNOW
Major Rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti and Ghaghra
Landlocked by Himachel Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan,
Madhya Pradesh and Bihar  
Area 2,94,411 sq. kms
Population 16.6 crores
(Males:8.7 crores Females:7.8 crores)  
Male-Female Ratio: 898 : 1000  
Rural Population: 13.15 crore  
Urban Population : 03.45 crores  
Density: 689 persons per sq. kms  
Literacy 57.36 %
Males : 70.23%
Females : 42.98 %
Adminsitartive Divisions 17
Districts 70
Towns 631
Villages 97,134
Airports 04
Telephone Exchanges 2,885
Habitated Households 2,14,07,433
Farmers 72.20 %
Total Income 1,64,630 crore Indian Rupees
Per capita income Rupees 9,765
Forest Cover 1,725 thousand hectares
Wildlife Sanctuaries 11
Bird Sanctuaries 12
National Parks 01
Metalled Roads 1,04,000 kms
Registered Vehicles 46,64,000
TV Centres 03
Radio Stations 13
Primary Schools 8,66,361
Higher Secondary Schools 8,459
Degree Colleges 758
Universities 23
Polytechnic Institutes 79
Industrial Training Institutes 179
Engineering Colleges 8
Private Engineering Colleges 22
Medical Colleges 9
Agriculture Universities 3
Registered Factories 42,7409
Total Production Rs 33,926 crore
Power generation installed capacity 4,425 Megawatts
Power Generation 24834 million units
Per capita power consumption 197 units
Electrified Villages 53,845
Birth Rate (per 1,000 population) 33.1%
Death Rate (per 1,000 population) 10.5%
Allopathic hospitals/dispensaries 4,236
Ayurvedic/Unani hospitals 2,210
Homeopathic hospitals/dispensaries 1,342
Food Production 40440 thousand metric ton
Wheat Production 26348 thousand metric ton
Rice Production 13247 thousand metric ton
Sugarcane Production 15419 thousand metric ton
Potato Production 9953 thousand metric ton
Cement Production 656600 metric ton
Cotton Cloth Production 368 thousand meter