There are many patients who come with aching feet to the orthopedic surgeon. Foot deformities are mostly ignored or given little attention till they really hamper patient’s work. Many anxious mother’s get their kids because the grandmother notices a “flat” foot. Here is a guide to the real “flat feet”.
There's an easy way to tell if you have flat feet. Simply wet your feet, and then stand on a flat, dry surface that will leave an imprint of your foot. A normal footprint has a wide band connecting the ball of the foot to the heel, with an indentation on the inner side of the foot. A foot with a high arch has a large indentation and a very narrow connecting band. Flat feet leave a nearly complete imprint, with almost no inward curve where the arch should be.
Most people have "flexible flatfoot" as children; an arch is visible when the child rises up on the toes, but not when the child is standing. As you age, the tendons that attach to the bones of the foot grow stronger and tighten, forming the arch. But if injury or illness damages the tendons, the arch can "fall," creating a flatfoot.
In many adults, a low arch or a flatfoot is painless and causes no problems. However, a painful flatfoot can be a sign of a congenital abnormality or an injury to the muscles and tendons of the foot. Flat feet can even contribute to low back pain. If the condition progresses, you may experience problems with walking, climbing stairs and wearing shoes. See your doctor if:
Although you can do the "wet test" at home, a thorough examination by a doctor will be needed to identify why the flatfoot developed. Your doctor will get a “footprint” done at his clinic. There is a software available which reads your print and gives valuable information to the orthotist. A qualified orthotist then makes a custom made footwear for you. Possible causes include a congenital abnormality, a bone fracture or dislocation, a torn or stretched tendon, arthritis or neurologic weakness. For example, an inability to rise up on your toes while standing on the affected foot may indicate damage to the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), which supports the heel and forms the arch. If "too many toes" show on the outside of your foot when the doctor views you from the rear, your shinbone (tibia) may be sliding off the anklebone (talus), another indicator of damage to the PTT.
Be sure to wear your regular shoes to the examination. An irregular wear pattern on the bottom of the shoe is another indicator of acquired adult flatfoot. Your doctor may request X-rays to see how the bones of your feet are aligned. Muscle and tendon strength are tested by asking you to move the foot while the doctor holds it.
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