Diabetes

Post an Article
 

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disorder of the body's metabolism. It is a chronic health condition where the body is unable to produce insulin and properly break down sugar (glucose) in the blood.  As a result, the level of sugar in the blood is increases very much. Body cannot convert food into energy because of a lack of insulin, or because of an inability to use insulin.


When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced.


These changes may aid in the development of coronary artery disease. It can cause complications ranging from numbness to loss of vision to coma. It also significantly raises the risk for other problems, such as stroke and heart disease. People with diabetes are very susceptible to kidney failure also because diabetes affects the blood supply to the kidneys. The sugar and starch are not properly used by the bodies due to inadequate insulin production or decreased sensitivity to insulin. 


What is Pre-diabetes?

People with pre-diabetes have blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. This condition raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.


How long does Diabetes last?

Diabetes Mellitus is a life-long chronic condition.



  1. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or adolescence. The symptoms tend to occur suddenly after the onset of the disease and are usually more obvious than those of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Type 2 diabetes usually begins in adulthood (mainly after 40 years of age). It develops gradually in most cases and may be present for several years before it is detected.

  3. Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition that may occur during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born.


Complications of Diabetes


There are many complications of diabetes that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Diabetes ultimately leads to high blood sugar levels, a condition called hyperglycemia.


Other complications of Diabetes are:



  • Adults with diabetes need to take special care of their feet because the damage to the nerves from diabetes can cause of foot wounds and ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers are at very high risk of becoming infected, and sometimes they cannot be healed. Non-healing foot ulcers are a frequent cause of amputation in people with diabetes.

  • Damage to the nerves in the autonomic nervous system can lead to paralysis of the stomach, chronic diarrhea, and an inability to control heart rate and blood pressure with posture changes.

  • Diabetes accelerates atherosclerosis, or the formation of fatty plaques inside the arteries, which can lead to blockages or a clot, which can then lead to heart attack, stroke, and decreased circulation in the arms and legs.

  • High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels that feed the retina of the eye, which is a leading cause of blindness.

  • It can damage the kidneys which causes of kidney failure. People with kidney failure must either have dialysis treatment or receive a kidney transplant.


In the short run, diabetes can contribute to a number of acute medical problems.



  • Diabetic ketoacidosis can be precipitated by infection, stress, trauma, missing medications like insulin, or medical emergencies like stroke and heart attack.

  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome is a serious condition in which the blood sugar level gets very high. This syndrome typically occurs in people with type II diabetes who are not controlling their blood sugar levels or have become dehydrated or have stress, injury, stroke, or medications like steroids.

  • Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, occurs from time to time in most people with diabetes. It results from taking too much diabetes medication or insulin, missing a meal, doing more exercise than usual, drinking too much alcohol, or taking certain medications for other conditions. Headache, feeling dizzy, poor concentration, tremors of hands, and sweating are common symptoms of hypoglycemia.

  • Many infections are associated with diabetes, and infections are frequently more dangerous in someone with diabetes because the body's normal ability to fight infections is impaired.


Previous Article : Types of diabetes and causes of diabetes

Concerned Doctors in - Chandigarh

Dr. K P Singh (MD, DM Endocrinology)

View All Doctors