Types of diabetes and causes of diabetes

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There are three types of diabetes

  • Type I Diabetes : Formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM). It is tend to develop the disease early in life and is unable to control blood sugar levels because their bodies cannot make a special hormone called insulin. It is also known as Juvenile Diabetes as the onset of it begins in childhood. There is no known preventative measure that can be taken against type 1 diabetes. Diet and exercise cannot reverse or prevent type 1 diabetes. The principal treatment of type 1 diabetes is replacement of insulin which should be taken from the earliest stages.


  • Type II Diabetes : It is also referred to as adult-onset-diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the body may make insulin, but either it makes too little, or it can't use what it makes--the insulin is there, but it can't escort the glucose through the entrances to the cells. Type II diabetes occurs most commonly in people over age forty.  Obesity is found in approximately 55% of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is usually first treated by attempts to change physical activity, the diet - to decrease carbohydrate intake, and weight loss. Oral medication can be used to improve insulin production.


  • Pre-gestational and Gestational diabetes: When a woman who is known to have diabetes and she becomes pregnant then she is said to have pre-gestational diabetes. When a woman develops diabetes during pregnancy or is first recognized as having this condition during pregnancy, she is said to have gestational diabetes because the mother's body is not able to produce enough insulin. It is temporary diabetes and fully treatable and curable but, if untreated, may cause problems with the pregnancy. It may damage the health of the fetus or mother, women who have had gestational diabetes have a 20 to 50 percent chance of developing type II diabetes within next few years. Gestational Diabetes is high blood glucose that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. It can create complications like macrosomia or high birth weight, fetal malformation and congenital heart disease. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome.

Effects of diabetes on the baby after birth

  1. Sometimes, infants can be born with respiratory distress syndrome, in which the baby has problems breathing because his or her lungs have not matured as normal. This problem usually clears up with time.  

  2. The baby may have low blood sugar after birth. This is because the baby's pancreas makes extra insulin in response to the mother's high blood sugar levels.  

  3. The newborn baby may develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes). This is not serious and usually fades over a few weeks, without the need for medical treatment.  

  4. There is also a slightly higher chance of stillbirth or death as a newborn, but if detected and the glucose levels well managed, death is rare.  

  5. There is an increased risk that the baby will be born with congenital problems, such as a heart defect.  

  6. There may be an increased risk of the baby developing type II diabetes or being overweight later in life.

Causes of diabetes

Scientists are still working on the cause of diabetes. The main cause of diabetes is the body's failure to produce enough of the insulin hormone.

Causes of Type I Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In autoimmunity, the body fights off part of its own cells instead of an infection. In type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and therefore they are no longer capable of making insulin.

Causes of Type II Diabetes

Family history and genetics play a large role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight (especially around the waist) significantly increase your risk for type 2 diabetes.

Causes of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes develops in women during pregnancy because the mother's body is not able to produce enough insulin. It is thought that the hormones produced during pregnancy may block the action of insulin. As pregnancy progresses and the placenta grow larger, hormone production also increases and so does the level of insulin resistance. This process usually starts between 20 and 24 weeks of pregnancy. At birth, when the placenta is delivered, the hormone production stops and so does the Gestational Diabetes.

The other causes of diabetes are as follows:

  • A parent, brother, or sister with diabetes

  • Age greater than 45 years 

  • Gestational diabetes or delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds 

  • High blood cholesterol level 

  • High blood levels of triglycerides

  • High blood pressure 

  • High fat diet

  • Lack of enough exercise

  • Obesity 

  • Environmental factors

Risk factors of Diabetes

There are a number of known risk factors of diabetes

  • Genetics: Some people get diabetes from their parents so genetics problem can be a risk factor of raising diabetes.

  • Overweight: Obesity or Increase in weight can increase the blood sugar which can increase the risk of diabetes.

  • Physical inactivity: Physical Inactivity can be a risk factor for diabetes because exercise helps you to control blood sugar, cholesterol, blood pressure etc. 

  • Pregnancy: Gestational diabetes in pregnancy can lead to diabetes in next few years.

  • Trauma, stress: Sometimes emotional traumas or stress can also lead to the risk of diabetes.

  • Autoimmune diseases: The presence of other autoimmune disorders, such as thyroid disease and celiac disease, raises the risk of type 1 diabetes.

  • Exposure to cow's milk: Studies have found that exposure to cow's milk or cow's milk-based formula before one year of age may increase the risk of diabetes.

  • High calorie diet: It will raise your blood sugar which can cause diabetes.

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