HIV/AIDS : Causes and Treatment

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Dr. Ravindra Dargainya

Posted By : Dr. Ravindra Dargainya - MBBS,DDV,PGDMLS, CFN

Posted On : Jun 22, 2012 (Views : 2677)

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirusfamily) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),[1][2] a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluidi╗┐. Transmission through infected needle, unsafe (unprotected) sex, mother to baby at birth (perinatal transmission)

How the Virus affects the body : HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4+ T cells byCD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.i╗┐

Prevention: Safe sex : Use of Condom Use of sterilized disposable syringes/needles Avoid sharing of toothbrush, tongue cleaner A course of antiretroviral treatment administered immediately after exposure, referred to aspost-exposure prophylaxis, reduces the risk of infection if begun as quickly as possible.i╗┐

Treatment : Treatment consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAARTi╗┐. However ther is no premanent cure of this disease. But treatment will ensure quality and prolong the life of Patient

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