Add a Disease

 

INTRODUCTION

Euphoria- The word derives from Greek "power of enduring easily, fertility”. Euphoria can be described as a heightened or exaggerated sense of happiness or well-being and is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement and joy. Euphoria is an affect but the term is often used to define emotion as an intense state of happiness combined with an overwhelming sense of contentment. It has also been defined as an “affective state of exaggerated well-being or elation”.

Euphoria can occur naturally as a normal or non-pathological condition during such situations as sexual organism, athletic victory or other competitive victory, or as a result of meditation or a spiritual experience. This type of euphoria occurs briefly.

Euphoria, especially longer or regular periods of euphoria, can also be a symptom of a variety of diseases, disorders and conditions. These include drug use, alcohol use, bipolar disorder, cyclothymic personality and head injury.It may occasionally be seen in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, in which emotional responses and perceptions of reality are abnormal.

Depending on the cause, euphoria can be short-term and disappear relatively quickly, such as when it occurs due to sexual orgasm.

SYMPTOMS OF EUPHORIA

There are many symptoms that can occur with euphoria. Symptoms vary depending on the disease, disorder or condition that is at the root of the euphoria. Common coexisting symptoms include:

  • Extremely positive sense of wellbeing
  • Intense joy
  • Intense happiness
  • Anxiety
  • Hallucinations
  • Memory problems
  • Forgetfulness
  • Restlessness
  • Extreme mood swings
  • Paranoia
  • Confusion
  • Disorientation

TYPES OF EUPHORIA

Exercise-induced

A study by using PET scans and a mood questionnaire shows that runners exhibited high levels of endorphins binding to opioid receptors within several regions of the brain, mostly frontal regions involved with positive emotions. This analysis also showed that the subjective euphoric level of an individual runner directly corresponded with the amount of endorphin activity that occurred within the brain. This study didn't prove that endorphin release is the sole cause of euphoric experience caused by exercise, but was at least a greatly contributing factor.

This study shows that endurance exercise can be therapeutically utilized in benefiting the condition of those who experience anxiety or depression.

Pharmacologically-induced

  • Alcohol: Euphoria, the feeling of well-being, has been reported during the early (10–15 min) phase of alcohol consumption(e.g., beer, wine or spirits)
  • Opium: This drug derived from the unripe seed-pods of the opium poppy...produces drowsiness and euphoria and reduces pain. Morphine and codeine are opium derivatives.

CAUSES OF EUPHORIA

  • Mental Health-Mental health is more than just being free of a mental-illness. It is more of an optimal level of thinking, feeling, and relating to others.
  • Alcoholism- Herethe sufferer has a pattern of drinking excessively despite the negative effects of alcohol on the individual's work, medical, legal, educational, and/or social life.
  • DrugAbuse- is a disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems or distress. It affects more than 7% of people at some point in their lives. Teens are increasingly engaging in prescription drug abuse, particularly narcotics (which are prescribed to relieve severe pain) and stimulants.
  • Psychotic Disorder-Psychotic disorders are a group of serious illnesses that affect the mind. These illnesses alter a person's ability to think clearly, make good judgments, respond emotionally, communicate effectively, understand reality, and behave appropriately. When symptoms are severe, people with psychotic disorders have difficulty staying in touch with reality and often are unable to meet the ordinary demands of daily life. However, even the most severe psychotic disorders usually are treatable.
  • Dysthymia-Dysthymia is a less severe form of depression, sometimes referred as chronic depression. The depression symptoms can linger for a long period of time, perhaps two years or longer. Those who suffer from dysthymia are usually able to function adequately but might seem consistently unhappy.
  • Schizophrenia-Schizophrenia, also sometimes called split personality disorder, is a chronic, severe mental illness that affects about 1% of the population. It affects men about one and a half times more commonly than women. It is one of the psychotic mental disorders and is characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. The thought problems are described as psychosis, in that the person's thinking is completely out of touch with reality at times. The individual with this disorder may have disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, physically rigid or lax behavior (catatonia), significantly decreased behaviors or feelings, as well as delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no basis in reality (for example, thinking others are plotting against them when they are not). The sufferer may hear voices or see people that are in no way present or feel like bugs are crawling on their skin when there are none.
  • Bipolar Disorder- Bipolar disorder, also called manic depression, is a mental illness that is characterized by severe mood swings, repeated episodes of depression, and at least one episode of mania. Bipolar disorder is one kind of mood disorder that afflicts more than 1% of adults in the United States, up to as many as 4 million people.

DIAGNOSIS

Diagnosing euphoria and its root cause begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms, and completing a physical examination, including a neurological examination.

Depending on the suspected cause, tests can include blood tests, urine tests, and imaging tests, such as CT scan and MRI of the brain.

Drug screening and alcohol tests on blood and urine are performed if euphoria is suspected to be due to alcohol or drug use. Thyroid tests and blood, such as T3, T4 and TSH, are performed if the cause of euphoria is suspected to be due to hyperthyroidism.

TREATMENT

Treatment of euphoria due to disorders or diseases involves diagnosing and treating the underlying cause. Some conditions can be easily and successfully treated and cured, while others may require more intensive treatment and may not have an optimal prognosis.

Treatment plans for euphoria are individualized depending on the cause, the presence of coexisting diseases, the age and medical history of the patient, and other factors. Treatment generally involves a multifaceted plan that addresses the underlying or associated cause and helps to moderate behavior so a person can function effectively and lead as active and normal a life as possible.

Treatment of mental health disorders may include a combination of medications, regular ongoing mental health care and psychotherapy. Treatment of drug and alcohol use that results in alcoholism or alcohol abuse includes medical detoxification programs, rehabilitation programs, addiction recovery programs, psychotherapy and ongoing medical and psychological monitoring.

Alzheimer’s disease can cause euphoria, but there is no treatment that can cure or slow the progression of the disease. However, medication may help people with Alzheimer’s disease to improve cognitive functioning and moderate extreme emotions, such as euphoria.

Euphoria can be an early symptoms of hypoxia(a lack of oxygen in the body's tissues)Hypoxia is treated with supplemental oxygen and by treating the underlying cause of hypoxia such as COPD.Treatment of altitude sickness includes moving to a lower altitude, ensuring good hydration and supplemental oxygen in some cases.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism includes anti-thyroid medications. Radioactive iodine may be used to destroy the thyroid and stop the excess production of thyroid hormones. In some cases, surgery may be needed to remove the head injury, petit mal seizures that cause euphoria generally need to be evaluated and treated by a neurologist and/or neurosurgeon. Petit mal seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy are treated with antiepileptic drugs, such phenytoin, primidone, valproate, carbamazepine and phenobarbital. Special diets and surgery may be done in some cases.

 



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