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It is the sever form of pregnancy induced hypertension. In this condition patient starts getting fits due to uncontrolled high blood pressure, generally > 160 / 110 mm.

Cause:
This is a condition peculiar to pregnancy. The condition improves spontaneously after pregnancy. It occurs more commonly in first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, grand multiparas and in women with hypertension.

Symptoms:
The fits are generalized tonic and clonic convulsions which means fits involving whole body. There is frothing of mouth, uprolling of eye balls, tongue bites, urinary incontinence etc. along with the fits. Warning signs of eclampsia are:

  • Very high blood pressure.
  • Headache
  • Black spots in front of eyes
  • Generalized swelling of the body
  • Epigastric pain
  • Decreased urinary output may occur in some patients but not in all.


Treatment:
Eclampsia is a serious emergency and should be treated immediately. Patient should be immediately rushed to hospital. These fits are often recurrent. In hospital, patient is made to lie in a quite room. Breathing and circulation are ensured. Anti convulsant treatment is given. Anti hypertensives to bring down the blood pressure are given and delivery of fetus is expedited.

Prevention:
Eclampsia is preventable to certain extent with appropriate antenatal checkup. At every antenatal visit blood pressure recording is a must so that pregnancy induced hypertension is not missed. Once diagnosed as hypertension of pregnancy the treatment includes regular blood pressure monitoring at home and good compliance with anti hypertensive drugs. If blood pressure recording is high or any of the warning signals show up patient should report immediately to the doctor.


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