Diabetes Mellitus is the disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism. Beta cells of Langerhans in Pancreas don’t produce Insulin in sufficient quantities to digest the carbohydrates consumed in the food. This results in the increase of sugar in the blood. Diabetes Mellitus commonly referred to as ‘Diabetes’ which is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
Fasting level of sugaris 60-90 mg per 100ml and Post Prandial or after digestion of food it increases to 150 mg.If this percentage increases beyond 170 mg per 100ml, then the sugar appears in the urine also. When this percentage increases even beyond this level, the fats in the blood also is not metabolized properly and they appear as Ketone Bodies. Other acidic substances also get increased in the blood.
High quantity of unburned or non metabolized sugar in the blood for a long time can cause bad effects on various organs like Blood Vessels (Atherosclerosis), Nerves (Neuropathy), Kidney (Nephropathy), Eyes (Retinopathy), Brain and Heart (Coronary Heart Disease).
MADHUMEHA in Ayurveda is generally correlated with Diabetes Mellitus, which has become a universal problem in spite of terrific advances in modern medical science. The WHO has projected INDIA as a country with fastest growing of Diabetes Population.
Madhumeha is also a Maha Roga, because it affects most vital organs of the human body and every cell of human physiology. The ancient ayurvedic physicians described not only the Sweet Urine as one of its major Symptom, but also the relationship of the disease to the disturbance of the five sheaths of the body- Annamaya Kosha (Food Sheath), Pranamaya Kosha(Energy Sheath), Manomaya Kosha (Mind Sheath), Vijnanamaya Kosha (Intellectual Sheath) and Anandamaya Kosha (Bliss Sheath).
The Aetiology (Causes) of Madhumeha are Lack of Exercise and improper Food Habits, such as excess intake of food which falls in the category of Usna, Snigdha and Guru like Fish and Curds and all the foods that increase Kapha, Medhas and Mutra.
According to Ayurveda the management of Madhumeha is based on individual constitution. Treatment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is Brimhana Ahara, Vihara and Oushadha Chikitsa, which increase the dhatus of the body. In Type 2 Diabetes, Obese patients with optimal body strength having intense increase of doshas, purification of the body is advocated.This is dependent on dosha predominance. The line of treatment in Type 2 is like- Snehanam (Abhyangam), Sodhanam (Vamanam, Virecanam, Vasthi), Samanam (Internal Medications), Pathya and Apathya sevana (Dietary Modifications), Vyayamam (Exercises)
Diabetes can be controlled by giving comprehensive attention to Three Aspects: Ahara (Diet), Vihara (Exercise) and Oushadha (Medicines). The role of Ahara and Vihara are equally or even more important than others in order to control blood sugar level as well as to prevent complications of this disease.
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