Swine influenza (also called swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu) refers to influenza caused by any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (swine).
Swine flu(H1N1) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people, identified in April 2009 in the United States of America. It has been believed that Swine flu had similarities with that of an influenza virus causing disease in pigs. But recent studies reveal that it is different from that virus of pigs. The swine influenza outbreak of 1976 in the United States, caused by an A/H1N1 virus antigenically similar to the virus that circulated in 1918-1919
Actually it is a mutated strain of virus means different strains of virus meet and formed the new strain. H and N antigens of influenza A virus to undergo periodic antigenic variation. Major antigenic variations are referred to as antigenic shifts, which may be associated with pandemics and are restricted to influenza A viruses. Minor variations are called antigenic drifts. These antigenic changes may involve the hemagglutinin alone or both the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase. In human infections, three major antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinins (H1, H2, and H3) and two of neuraminidases (N1 and N2) have been recognized.
Transmission of novel influenza A (H1N1) is being studied as part of the ongoing outbreak investigation, but limited data available indicate that this virus is transmitted in ways similar to other influenza viruses.
Seasonal human influenza viruses are thought to spread from person to person primarily through large-particle respiratory droplet transmission (e.g., when an infected person coughs or sneezes near a susceptible person). Transmission via large-particle droplets requires close contact between source and recipient persons because droplets do not remain suspended in the air and generally travel only a short distance (< 6 feet).
Contact with contaminated surfaces is another possible source of transmission and transmission via droplet nuclei (also called “airborne” transmission).
Because data on the transmission of novel H1N1 viruses are limited, the potential for ocular, conjunctival, or gastrointestinal infection is unknown. Since this is a novel influenza A virus in humans, transmission from infected persons to close contacts might be common. All respiratory secretions and bodily fluids (diarrheal stool) of novel influenza A (H1N1) cases should be considered potentially infectious.
Incubation periodThe estimated incubation period is unknown and could range from 1-7 days, and more likely 1-4 days.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms are similar to symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, chills, headache, upper respiratory tract symptoms (cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, shortness of breath), myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue, vomiting, or diarrhea. In the past, sever illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with swine flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.
The duration of shedding with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus is unknown. Therefore, until data are available, the estimated duration of viral shedding is based upon seasonal influenza virus infection.. Infected persons are assumed to be shedding virus from one day prior to illness onset until resolution of symptoms. In general, persons with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection should be considered potentially infectious from one day before to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might be infectious for up to 10 days.
Complication The most common complication of influenza is pneumonia: "primary" influenza viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, or mixed viral and bacterial pneumonia
Other pulmonary complications associated with influenza include worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and asthma. In children, influenza infection may present as croup.
Mortality and Morbidity The morbidity and mortality caused by influenza outbreaks continue to be substantial. Most individuals who die in this setting have underlying diseases that place them at high risk for complications of influenza. The most prominent high-risk conditions are chronic cardiac and pulmonary diseases as well as old age. Mortality among individuals with chronic metabolic, renal, and certain immunosuppressive diseases has also been elevated.
Laboratory findings and Diagnosis
Laboratory diagnosis is accomplished during acute influenza by isolation of the virus from throat swabs, nasopharyngeal washes, or sputum. Virus is usually detected in tissue culture.
Vaccination Influenza vaccines has never been promising results as influenza virus has a property to mutate itself as is the case with Swine Flu.
Homoeopathic Prophylaxis Some homoeopaths recommend Influenzinum nosode or Occilococcinum but before the prodrome has even begun.
Influenza was a pandemic health problem. In 1918 pandemic nearly 20 million peoples died of this disease. At that time many homoeopaths has done wonderful works with Homoeopathic remedies including Dr. H. A. Robert, Dr. W.A. Dewey, W. A. Pearson of Philadelphia who had demonstrated clinical cases to world. At that time Gelsemium has acted as genus Epidemicus.
W. F. Edmundson, MD, Pittsburgh has quoted “One physician in a Pittsburgh hospital asked a nurse if she knew anything better than what he was doing, because he was losing many cases. “Yes, Doctor, stop aspirin and go down to a homeopathic pharmacy, and get homeopathic remedies." The Doctor replied: "But that is homeopathy." "I know it, but the homeopathic doctors for whom I have nursed have not lost a
single case. At that time Salicylate and Aspirin and Quinine were ineffective and infact Aspirins causing deaths in children cases.
Influenza vaccines has never been promising results as influenza virus has a property to mutate itself as is the case with Swine Flu.
The most important part relating clinical significance is early and prompt diagnosis and differential diagnosis. As you know cases should be studied in detail according to characteristic symptoms.
Following are few rubrics in Synthesis 9.0 repertory with their corresponding medicines.
MIND - CONFUSION of mind - influenza; after
MIND - HEAVINESS; sensation of - influenza; after
MIND - INDIFFERENCE - influenza - after
MIND - PROSTRATION of mind - influenza - after
MIND - PROSTRATION of mind - influenza - during
MIND - WEARISOME - influenza; after
HEAD - PAIN - influenza; during
HEAD - PAIN - Occiput - influenza; during
HEAD - PAIN - bursting - influenza, during
HEAD - PAIN - neuralgic - influenza; after
EYE - PAIN - sore - influenza, during
Bry, eup-per,gels. tub.
EAR - CARIES, threatened - Mastoid process - influenza; from
MOUTH - APHTHAE - influenza
STOMACH - VOMITING - influenza, during
KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - influenza, from
FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - ABORTION - influenza, during
COUGH - INFLUENZA - after
am-c , atro.bry.t coch. Erio. sang.stict.
CHEST - PAIN - Pleura - accompanied by - influenza
EXTREMITIES - PAIN - influenza - after - pain remaining
EXTREMITIES - PAIN - influenza - during
Acon. BRY.Caust Chel. EUP-PER.Euph.Gels.gink-b. naja
EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Lower limbs - sciatica - influenza after
SLEEP - SLEEPINESS - influenza, in
bapt.t Gels, Sabad.
SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS - influenza, after
GENERALS - CONVALESCENCE; ailments during - influenza; after
abrot. cadm-met, carc chin.chinin-ar.Con. gels. influ. kali-p.lath. mand. merc-k-i. nat-sal. okou.l phyt.psor.scut. sul-ac.sulfonam.j sulph.tub.
GENERALS - INFLUENZA
Acon, all-c., ant-t., apis, arn., ars-i.,ars-s-r.,ars., arum-d., asc-c., asc-t., aven, bamb-a., bapt.Bell bry. calc ,camph-br camph. canch. capp-crc carb-ac. carb-v card-m. caust. cent cham. chel. chin. cimic.cupr des-ac. dioxi diph-pert-t diphtox dulc. erio ery-a. Eucal eug. Eup-per euph. euphr ferr-p. Gels germ-met Graph haff influ. ip. kali-i lach. lob-p lob-s. lyc. Lycpr menth. merc-c. merc-k-i. merc Nat-n nat-s. Nux-v oci-sa, oscilloc ozone, oxyg, phel, phos, phyt Psor ,puls, pyrog rad-br Rhus-t ribo.sabad. salin. salol. Sang sangin-n sanic sarcol-ac sarr seneg. Sil spig. squil stict., stry-xyz still stram sul-i. sulo-ac Sulph Thymul trios tub-a. Tub vario. verat-v. Verat, wye, yers ,ziz.
GENERALS - MEDICINE - allopathic - oversensitive to - influenza; medicine against
am-c, carb-v lach. op. GENERALS - WEAKNESS - influenza - after
abrot carc chin con cypr. irid-met. kali-p. lath. NAT-SAL. sal-ac.
GENERALS - WEAKNESS - influenza - during
caust., gels, Sarcol-ac
Besides these rubrics some general rubrics of cough, pain, fever and particular rubrics of organs must be considered to treat influenza case.
We are seeing that Gels , Baptesia, Bryonia and Eup per are the most common remedies.
Gelsemium The picture presented is one of loss of muscle tone associated with great lassitude and listlessness, and a not surprising aversion to making any kind of effort. The symptoms in fever are of the influenza type- slow onset, vague aches and pains, chills up and down the spine, great weariness in body and limbs, head heavy and dull, muscles sore and feeling bruised. The regions especially involved are the shoulders and the lower extremities. Thirstlessness with the fever; agg. at night. Gelsemium influenzas always include a very unpleasant, severe headache.
Baptisia tinctoria In contrast to Gelsemium patients, Baptisia patients are definitely more dusky. They give you the impression that their faces are a little puffy and swollen; their eyes are heavy, but with a congested, besotted look rather than the drooping lids of Gelsemium; and lip congestion, present in Gelsemium, makes Baptisia lips rather blue.
Mentally, Baptisia patients are more toxic than Gelsemium patients. In contrast with Gelsemium, Baptisia patients are always thirsty. Baptisia patients always have intense aching pains all over. Any part they press is painful and tender
Bryonia Alba The typical Bryonia influenza develops, like the Gelsemium case, over a period of six to twelve hours. And the appearance of Bryonia patients is not unlike that of Gelsemium patients. They give the impression of being rather dull, heavy, slightly congested, with a rather puffy face. -Although they are definitely heavy-looking, they do not have the sleepy appearance that you find in Gelsemium, nor yet the besotted look of the Baptisia patient - something between the two. -Mentally, Bryonia patients are also definitely dull and do not want to be disturbed - but if they are disturbed they are irritable. They do not want to speak, and do not want to be spoken to. They are always thirsty, and their desire is for cold drinks - large quantities of cold water. There is a very typical Bryonia tongue. It is usually a thickly-coated white tongue. There is nearly always troublesome constipation, and a definite lack of appetite
Eupatorium perfoliatum The outstanding point which leads to the consideration of Eupatorium is the degree of pain which the patients have. There are very intense pains all over - of an aching character - which seem to involve all the bones of the skeleton, arms, legs, shoulders, back, hips and, particularly, the shin bones.
As a rule, Eupatorium influenzas develop rather more quickly than others, and the pains develop very rapidly. The patients say it feels as if the various joints were being dislocated.
In Eupatorium influenzas - a useful differentiation, point - the sweat is very scanty. Other drugs which have a very similar degree of bone aching all tend to sweat.
Eupatorium patients are always chilly.
Rhus toxicodendron The onset of a Rhus tox. influenza is usually gradual and without a very high temperature; it is a slowly progressing feverish attack, which is accompanied by very violent generalized aching.
The aching in Rhus tox. is very typical indeed. The patients are extremely restless; their only relief lies in constant movement, constant change of position. If they lie still for any length of time, their muscles feel stiff and painful.
The typical Rhus tox. tongue is very characteristic. It has a bright red tip and a coated root, the coating varying from white to dark brown. Instead of the typical triangular red tip, some patients have a generalized dry, red tongue which tends to crack, is burning hot and very painful.
Dulcamara One of the best remedies in acute form. Eyes suffused, throat sore;vcough hurts due to muscular soreness, brought on by wet or change to cold weather.
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