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Nutrient Guide
NUTRIENTS THEIR FUNCTIONS
Carbohydrates

are the most important nutrients used by your working muscles.

Protein

contains amino acids - the building blocks - that your body uses to build and maintain muscles, bone, skin, blood and other organs.

Fat

is the chief storage system of energy.

Vitamins

help promote and regulate bodily processes and chemical reactions.

Minerals

enable enzymes to function.

Water

enables chemical reactions to take place.


The food that you consume provides essential chemical compounds called nutrients . Nutrients are the things in foods that our body needs to stay healthy and grow. Various nutrients are required by human body to carry out its vital activities and to sustain life. Of these nutrients, micronutrients include protein, fat and carbohydrates. Good nutrition is a term synonymous with maintenance of healthy body. It is necessary to strike a balance between the quantity and quality of the diet so as to sustain adequate nourishment. As per the diet - no food is fattening, it is either too much or too little. So always eat a "Healthy balanced diet" which should have proper proportions of "Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, Vitamins and Minerals". Never go for complete fat-free-diet because Vitamin ADEK are fat soluble vitamins which are very important for bony growth of the body and development of body.

 Importance of Proteins
 Importance of Carbohydrates
 Importance of Fats
 Importance of Fiber
 Importance of Vitamins
 Importance of Minerals

Importance Of Proteins

Much of the body's structure is made up of proteins. The typical 80 Kg. man is composed of about 50 Kg. of water, 15 Kgs.of protein, 12 Kgs. of fat, 2.5 Kgs. of minerals, 500 gms.of carbohydrates and less than 30 gms. of vitamins. Since the muscles, heart, brain, lungs etc. are made up largely of proteins which are in constant need of replacement, protein power and the importance of protein foods are obvious. Protein is the basic chemical unit of the living cell, essential for their nutrition, growth and repair, and to provide heat and energy.

1 gram of protein yields 4 kcal. It is the body building material and as antibodies it helps the body to defend against infection. It is an essential component of the diet, especially during the growing years of infant and children, for fetal development during pregnancy and for lactating mothers. Protein foods contain all of the necessary amino acids required for proper nourishment.


Use the following chart to help select foods that are good sources of protein:

Food Grams of Protein
6 oz. canned tuna 40
4 oz. chicken breast 35
3 oz. beef * 26
3 oz. turkey 25
3 oz. salmon 23
8 oz. (1 cup) garbanzo beans 15
8 oz. (1 cup) milk 8
8 oz. (1 cup) yogurt 10
4 oz. (1/2 cup) tofu 10
4 oz. (1/2 cup) cottage cheese 14
1 egg 6
1 oz. cheddar cheese 87
8 oz.(1 cup) pasta 5

* A 3 ounce serving of beef (or chicken) is about the size of a deck of cards.

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Importance of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates contain the important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that are essential to our health and that help prevent heart disease and cancer. Unrefined carbohydrates are good one found in whole, natural foods, such as whole grains, legumes, rice, and starchy vegetables. They're also called complex carbohydrates, so named for their molecular structure. Besides being packed with fiber, vitamins, and minerals, good carbs take longer to digest.

Refined carbohydrates, on the other hand, are found in packaged processed foods, such as store-bought baked goods, crackers, pasta, and white bread. Refined carbohydrates are made with white flour and contain little or no fiber. In fact, many products made with white flour are advertised as fortified with vitamins and minerals. But current evidence reveals that fortification with vitamins does not recreate the benefits of the natural vitamins that have been removed.

Foods rich in Carbohydrates:

Food Serving Size Carbohydrates
(grams) per serving
Bread, cereal, grains:
Bagel 1 whole 38
Barley, pearled & uncooked 1 cup 158
Bread 1 slice 12-18
Breakfast cereal, hot 1 cup 18-31
Breakfast cereal, cold 1 ounce 18-24
Muffins 1 whole 27
Rice, uncooked 1 cup 41-50
Spaghetti, cooked firm 1 cup 39
Fruits:
Apricot, nectar 1 cup 36
Banana, sliced 1 cup 35
Blueberries, raw 1 cup 20
Dates, whole & pitted 10 61
Figs, dried 10 122
Grapefruit juice 1 cup 72
Vegetables:
Beans, dry & cooked 1 cup 31-49
Refined beans, canned 1 cup 51
Carrots, cooked 1 cup 16
Corn, kernels 1 cup 34
Jerusalem Artichoke, raw & sliced 1 cup 26
Dairy products:
Milk, dried nonfat 1 cup 35
Yogurt, lowfat plain 1 cup 16
Yogurt, nonfat 1 cup 17
Others:
Nuts 1 cup 45
Cashews 1 cup 9
Chestnuts 1 cup 76
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Importance of Fats

Fat is an important part of a healthy diet. It is the most concentrated source of energy of all the food compounds. There's more and more evidence that many fats are good for us and actually reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. They also help our sugar and insulin metabolism and therefore contribute to our goals of long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Within our body fats are vital as they are carriers of vitamin A,D,E and K and act as lubricant to help in bowel movement. And because good fats make foods taste better, they help us enjoy the journey to a healthier lifestyle. But not all fats are created equal--there are good fats and bad fats.

"Good" fats include monounsaturated fats, found in olive and canola oils, peanuts and other nuts, peanut butter, and avocados. Monounsaturated fats lower total and "bad" LDL cholesterol--which accumulates in and clogs artery walls--while maintaining levels of "good" HDL cholesterol, which carries cholesterol from artery walls and delivers it to the liver for disposal.

Omega-3 fatty acids--polyunsaturated fats found in coldwater fish, canola oil, flaxseeds, walnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts--also count as good fat. There is evidence that omega-3 oils help prevent or treat depression, arthritis, asthma, and colitis and help prevent cardiovascular deaths.

If you're not eating fish, it is important that you eat foods with alpha-linolenic acid, a type of fat that can be converted into omega-3 fats in your body. The richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid are flaxseed oil, English walnuts, canola oil and soy oil.

"Bad" fats include saturated fats--the heart-clogging kind found in butter, fatty red meats, and full-fat dairy products. "Very bad" fats are the manmade trans fats. Trans fats, which are created when hydrogen gas reacts with oil, are found in many packaged foods, including margarine, cookies, cakes, cake icings, doughnuts, and potato chips. Trans fats are worse than saturated fats; they are bad for our blood vessels, nervous systems, and waistline.

High fat foods:

Food % of Fat
Bread, Cereals, Grains:
Breads 2-4
Cereals trace-2
Pasta, plain 1-2
Fruit trace
Avocado 17
Vegetables trace
Olives 20
Meat:
Beef, stewed & lean only 15
Beef, stewed & lean; fat 29
Ground beef 19
Roast, rib & lean only 15
Roast, rib & lean; fat 31
Pork sausages 31
Poultry:
Chicken breast, roasted without skin 3
Turkey 5-20
Turkey, light & dark, no skin 5
Fish:
Clams, crabmeat, oysters,shrimps 1-2
Salmon, baked 6
Salmon, canned 9
Sardines 10
Tuna, oil pack 8
Tuna, water pack 2
Cheese:
American 32
Blue 28
Cheddar 32
Cottage, creamed 4
Cottage, lowfat 2
Mozzarella 21
Swiss 28
Milk:
Whole 3.2
Lowfat 2
Non-fat, skim than 0
Other dairy products:
Butter 81
Others:
Vegetable oils 100
Margarines 80
Mayonnaise 79
Nuts 50-70
Soyabeans, dry 30
Egg yolk 33
Fatty acids in oils or fats:
Fat or Oil... Saturated
Fatty
acids(%)
Monoun-
saturated
fatty acids(%)
Polyun- saturated
fatty acids(%)
Kinds of fats & oils
Canola oil 7 53 22 Monounsaturated
Corn oil 13 24 59 Polyunsaturated
Olive oil 14 74 9 Monounsaturated
Palm oil 52 38 10 Saturated
Peanut oil 17 46 32 Monounsaturated
Safflower oil 9 12 74 Polyunsaturated
Soyabean 15 23 51 Polyunsaturated
Soyabean - cotton seed oil 18 29 48 Polyunsaturated
Butter 62 30 5 Saturated
Lard 39 45 11 Saturated *
Quantity of cholesterol you consume per plate:
Food Serving Cholesterol (milligrams)
Meat:
Beef, stewed, lean & fat 3 ounces 87
Beef, stewed & lean 2.2 ounces 66
Beef, ground & lean 3 ounces 74
Beef, ground & regular 3 ounces 76
Beef steak, sirloin 3 ounces 77
Bacon 3 stips 16
Pork chop, lean 2.5 ounces 71
Poultry:
Chicken breast, roast 3 ounces 73
Chicken leg, roast 1.6 ounce 3 ounces
Turkey breast, roast 3 ounces 59
Fish:
Calims 3 ounces 43
Flounder 3 ounces 59
Oysters, raw 1 cup 120
Salmon, canned 3 ounces 34
Salmon, baked 3 ounces 60
Tuna 3 ounces 48
Tuna oil, canned 3 ounces 55
Cheese:
American 1 ounce 27
Cheddar 1 ounce 30
Cream 1 ounce 31
Mozzarella, whole milk 1 ounce 22
Mozzarella, part skim 1 ounce 15
Swiss 1 ounce 26
Milk:
Whole 8 ounces 33
2% 8 ounces 18
1% 8 ounces 18
Skim 8 ounces 10
Other dairy products:
Butter pat 11
Eggs, large 1 213
Others:
Lard tblsp. 12
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Importance of fiber

Fiber is very good for health, it can help prevent certain types of cancer such as colon and stomach cancer and can also lower your cholesterol level. It helps a lot to digestive system and stops the harmful toxins hanging around the body. People who eat more fiber are less likely to become overweight. It satisfies the appetite because of its capacity to make you "feel full."so choose fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains and oats and low fat nuts and seeds as snacks instead of high caloried snacks. Make fibre a main part of your meals. Try to have soups without straining, it may take some time for taste development. When you cut fat out of your diet, try replacing it with fiber. Fiber adds bulk to food, so you chew longer, eat more slowly, and feel full sooner.

Sources of fiber:

Food Amount of fiber (in gms) in a
100g (3.5 ounce) serving
Bread:
Bagel 2.1
Bran bread 8.5
Pita bread, white 1.6
Pita bread, whole white 7.4
White bread 1.9
Cereals:
Bran cereal 35.3
Bran flakes 18.8
Cornflakes 2.0
Oatmeal 10.6
Wheat flakes 9.0
Grains:
Barley, pearled 15.6
Cornmeal, whole grain 11.0
De-germed 5.2
Oatbran, raw 6.6
Rice, raw & brown 3.5
Rice, raw & white 1.0-2.8
Rice, raw & wild 5.2
Wheat bran 15.0
Fruits:
Apple, with skin 2.8
Apricots, dried 7.8
Figs, dried 9.3
Kiwifruit 3.4
Pears, raw 2.6
Prunes, dried 7.2
Prunes, stewed 6.6
Raisins 5.3
Vegetables:
Beans:
  - Baked, vegetarian 7.7
  - Chickpeas, canned 5.4
  - Lima, cooked 7.2
Broccoli, raw 7.7
Brussel sprouts, cooked 2.6
Cabbage, white & raw 2.4
Cauliflower, raw 2.4
Corn, sweet & cooked 3.7
Peas with edible pods, raw 2.6
Potatoes, white & baked, with skin 5.5
Sweet potato, cooked 3.0
Tomatoes, raw 1.3
Others:
Corn chips, toasted 4.4
Nuts:
  - Almonds, oil-roasted 11.2
  - Coconut, raw 9.0
  - Hazelnuts, oil-roasted 6.4
  - Peanuts, dry-roasted 8.0
  - Pistachios 10.8
Tahini 9.3
Tofu 1.2
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Importance of Vitamins

They are the micronutrients since they are required in small quantities, but nonetheless availability in our diet is vital.

Vitamins

Vitamins are organic substances present in small amounts in many foods. They are required for carrying out vital functions of the body and many of them are involved in the utilization of major nutrients like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Although they are needed in small amounts, they are essential for the health and well being of the body.

Fat soluble Vitamins:

 Vitamin A
 Vitamin D
 Vitamin E
 Vitamin K

Water soluble Vitamins:

 Vitamin B
 Vitamin C

Importance of Minerals

A large number of minerals are present in the body. Some of these form part of body structural components and some others act as catalytic agents in many body reactions.

 Calcium
 Phosphorus
 Iron
 Sodium
 Potassium


Calcium

Calcium is an element found in bones, shells and limestone, among other materials.

Calcium:

 helps lower blood pressure and control heartbeat
 helps regulate muscle contractions
 plays a role in blood clotting
 prevents fatal bleeding from breaks in the walls of blood vessels
 maintains cell membranes
 aids in the absorption of vitamin B12
 activates enzymes such as lipase, the fat-splitting enzyme

Your bones furnish reserves of calcium to keep plasma constant at all times.

100 milligrams of calcium:

 Cottage cheese -- 3/4 cup low-fat or creamed
 Broccoli -- 1 cup cooked, frozen
 Navy or pinto beans -- 1 cup cooked
 Taco -- one small
 English muffin -- 1
 Almonds -- 1/3 cup
 Figs, dried -- 4
 Frozen yogurt -- 1/2 cup

A calcium intake of up to 2,500 milligrams is safe for healthy people.

Phosphorous

Phosphorus is a mineral. It is a major component of bones and teeth and makes up part of DNA and RNA.

Phosphorus serves as the main regulator of energy metabolism in cells, helps the body absorb glucose and transport fatty acids, and is part of the buffer system that helps control the acid-base balance of the body.

Good Sources of Phosphorus:

Food Amount Phosphorus (milligrams)
All-bran cereal 8 oz. (1 cup) 792
Pancakes 3 pancakes 430
Chili with beans 8 oz. (1 cup) 393
Chocolate pudding (instant) 4 oz. (1/2 cup) 379
Pinto beans 8 oz. (1 cup) 273
1 % milk 8 oz. (1 cup) 245
Cinnamon raisin rolls 2 Hungry Jack rolls 234
American cheese 1 oz. 211
Rib-eye beef 3.5 oz. (less than 1/4 lb.) 208
Fried shrimp 3.5 oz. (less than 1/4 lb.) 191
Macaroni and cheese 8 oz. (1 cup) 182
Bran flakes 8 oz. (1 cup) 174
White cake from a mix 1 slice (1/12 of a cake) 170
Almonds 1 oz. 150
Oatmeal (regular, quick) 1 oz. (dry) 132
Egg 1 large egg 90
Cola 12 oz. 63

Deficiencies of phosphorus are rare. Most men get at least 1,500 milligrams and women get more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

Iron

Iron is part of haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying component of the blood. Iron-deficient people get tired easily because their bodies are starved for oxygen. Iron is also part of myoglobin, which helps muscle cells store oxygen. Without enough iron, ATP (the fuel the body runs on) cannot be properly synthesized. As a result, some iron-deficient people become fatigued even when their hemoglobin levels are normal. Although iron is part of the antioxidant enzyme catalase, iron is not generally considered an antioxidant, because too much iron can cause oxidative damage.

The most absorbable form of iron, called "haeme" iron, is found in oysters, meat, poultry, and fish. Non-haeme iron is also found in these foods, as well as in dried fruit, molasses, leafy green vegetables, wine, and most iron supplements. Acidic foods (such as tomato sauce) cooked in an iron pan can also be a source of dietary iron.

A common adult dose is 100 mg per day. When iron deficiency is diagnosed, the doctor must also determine the cause. Usually it's not serious (such as normal menstrual blood loss or blood donation). Occasionally, however, iron deficiency signals ulcers or even colon cancer. Many premenopausal women become marginally iron deficient unless they supplement with iron. Even so, the 18 mg of iron present in most multiple-vitamin/mineral supplements is often adequate.

Sodium

Healthy American adults should eat no more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium a day. This is about 1 teaspoon of sodium chloride (salt). To illustrate, the following are sources of sodium in the diet.

1/4 teaspoon salt = 575 mg sodium
1/2 teaspoon salt = 1,150 mg sodium
3/4 teaspoon salt = 1,725 mg sodium
1 teaspoon salt = 2,300 mg sodium
1 teaspoon baking soda = 1000 mg sodium

Common sources of sodium

When you must reduce the amount of sodium (salt) you eat, be aware of both natural and added sodium content. Table salt is sodium chloride. It's 40 percent sodium by weight. When you buy prepared and packaged foods, read the labels. Watch for the words "soda" (referring to sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda) and "sodium" and the symbol "Na." These products contain sodium compounds.

Some drugs have high amounts of sodium. Carefully read the labels on all over-the-counter drugs. Look at the ingredient list and warning statement to see if the product has sodium. A statement of sodium content must be on labels of antacids that have 5 mg or more per dosage unit (tablet, teaspoon, etc.). Some companies are now producing low-sodium over-the-counter products. If in doubt, ask your doctor or pharmacist if the drug is OK for you.

Most spices naturally contain very small amounts of sodium.

How to reduce the sodium in diet?

 Choose fresh, frozen or canned food items without added salts.
 Select unsalted nuts or seeds, dried beans, peas and lentils.
 Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat, like chips and pretzels.
 Avoid adding salt and canned vegetables to homemade dishes.
 Select unsalted, fat-free broths, bouillons or soups.
 Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium, low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.
 Specify what you want and how you want it prepared when dining out. Ask for your dish to be   prepared without salt.
 Use spices and herbs to enhance the taste of your food.

Potassium (K):

Potassium is a trace mineral essential for growth and good health.

Potassium in the human body helps to:

 keep normal water balance between the cells and body fluids
 maintain normal blood pressure
 transmit nerve impulses
 enable the contraction of muscles
 ensure proper functioning of cellular enzymes

Potassium Content of Foods:

Very Good Sources About 400 milligrams or more
Banana 1 medium banana
Cantaloupe 8 oz. (1 cup)
Orange juice 8 oz. (1 cup)
Baked potato 1 medium potato
Tomato juice 8 oz. (1 cup)
Honeydew melon 8 oz. (1 cup)
Nectarine 1 large nectarine
Dates 4 oz. (1/2 cup)
Dried beans 8 oz. (1 cup) cooked
Winter squash 4 oz. (1/2 cup) cooked
Good Sources Approximately 200-400 milligrams
Collard greens 4 oz. (1/2 cup)
Milk 8 oz. (1 cup)
Spinach 4 oz. (1/2 cup), frozen or boiled
Broccoli 4 oz. (1/2 cup)
Raw tomato 1 medium tomato
Cooked tomatoes 4 oz. (1/2 cup)
Avocado 1/2 avocado
Prunes 4 prunes

Daily consumption of 2,000 to 6,000 milligrams of potassium is a safe range for the general population.

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